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Zithrox (Zithromax)
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Zithrox

Azalides are a class of macrolide antibiotics which contain a nitrogen in the macrolide ring. This imparts different pharmacokinetic properties and is associated with greater stability of the molecule. One such Azalide is the antibiotic Zithrox. This medication is a macrolide antibiotic used for various bacterial infections such as infections of the middle ear, throat, bronchus, sinuses, skin and soft tissue. It is also useful in treating pneumonia, typhoid, gonorrhoea, granuloma inguinale and chancroid. It prevents bacterial growth.

Other names for this medication:
Azatril, Azenil, Azibiot, Azicip, Azifast, Azilide, Azimac, Azimax, Azimed, Azinix, Azithral, Azithromycin, Azitro, Azitrocin, Azitrom, Azitromicina, Azitrox, Aziwok, Azomax, Aztrin, Azycyna, Azyth, Binozyt, Hemomycin, Koptin, Macrozit, Sumamed, Tritab, Tromix, Zertalin, Zibramax, Zimax, Zistic, Zithrin, Zithromax, Zitrocin, Zival, Zocin, Zomax, Zycin

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Also known as:  Zithromax.

Description

Zithroxis available as both a generic and brand-name drug. Brand name(s): Zithromax. Generic drugs usually cost less than the brand-name version.

Zithroxis used to treat infections caused by bacteria.

This drug comes as a tablet, suspension, and extended-release suspension you take by mouth. It also comes as eye drops, as well as an intravenous form given by healthcare provider.

Zithroxis a prescription drug.

Zithroxis used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. It should not be used to treat infections caused by viruses, such as the common cold. Zithroxmay be used in combination with other antibiotics when it’s used to treat mycobacterium avium complex infection.

Zithroxworks by stopping bacteria from multiplying. This kills the bacteria and treats your infection.

Dosage

Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. The dose and length of treatment with Zithrox may not be the same for every type of infection. Take each tablet or capsule with a full glass (8 ounces) of water. To use the oral suspension single dose packet: Open the packet and pour the medicine into 2 ounces of water. Stir this mixture and drink all of it right away. To make sure you get the entire dose, add a little more water to the same glass, swirl gently and drink right away. Zithrox capsules must be taken on an empty stomach. Take the capsule at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating a meal Zithrox tablets or powder oral suspension may be taken with or without food. Take the tablet or oral suspension with food if the medicine upsets your stomach. Do not take Zithrox at the same time as taking an antacid that contains aluminum or magnesium. This includes Rolaids, Maalox, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia, Pepcid Complete, and others. These antacids can make Zithrox less effective when taken at the same time. Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one. Take this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Zithrox will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. It is important to take Zithrox regularly to get the most benefit. Store this medication at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused liquid medicine after 10 days.

Overdose

If you overdose Zithrox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Zithrox overdosage: discomfort feeling in stomach, diarrhea, retching, nausea.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zithrox are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take antacids that contain aluminum or magnesium within 2 hours of taking Zithrox.

Before taking Zithrox, tell your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs: nelfinavir (Viracept); digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); ergot medicine such as methysergide (Sansert), ergotamine (Ergostat, Medihaler, Cafergot, Ercaf, Wigraine), dihydroergotamine mesylate (D.H.E., Migranal Nasal Spray); triazolam (Halcion); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); phenytoin (Dilantin); cholesterol-lowering medicines such as lovastatin (Mevacor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), or cerivastatin (Baycol); a calcium channel blocker such as diltiazem (Cartia XT, Diltiazem, Tiazac), felodipine (Plendil), nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat), nimodipine (Nimotop), verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS); HIV medicines such as indinavir (Crixivan), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Invirase); alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion); theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair, Theochron); warfarin (Coumadin); pimozide (Orap); or another antibiotic, especially clarithromycin (Biaxin) or erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S, Ery-Tab).

If you are using any of these drugs, you may not be able to use Zithrox, or you may need dosage adjustments or special tests during treatment.

There are many other medicines that can interact with Zithrox. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors.

Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor. Keep a list with you of all the medicines you use and show this list to any doctor or other healthcare provider who treats you.

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The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max=6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max=193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max=292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max=448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally- and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.

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There were no significant intergroup differences in mean duration of hospitalization after the operation, incidence of postoperative hemorrhage, postoperative analgesic effect, or hematologic/blood biochemical findings. The incidence of postoperative fever was significantly lower in the AZM-treated group. Diarrhea occurred as an adverse drug reaction in the AZM-treated group, but no clinically significant adverse reactions were noted.

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Although only one of the patients exhibited a positive sputum P. jirovecii PCR test, the diagnosis of PCP in these three patients is supported by their; clinical and radiological features consistent with PCP, deterioration despite receiving broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and prompt responses to sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim therapy. In the patients with negative P. jirovecii PCR bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were not obtained as these patients were deemed too high risk to undergo the procedure. Although the three patients were also receiving dexamethasone therapy, the doses and durations were at the threshold of those expected to cause PCP.

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Although her clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with the diagnosis of H1N1 pneumonia, e.g., fever, sore throat, dry cough, arthralgias, myalgias, thrombocytopenia, relative lymphopenia, and elevated serum transaminases, some findings suggested an alternate diagnosis, e.g., leukopenia, a highly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, highly elevated serum ferritin levels, elevated antinuclear antibody (ANA) levels, and double-stranded (DS) DNA titers. Her chest x-ray showed an accentuation of basilar lung markings, with a small pleural effusion similar to the chest x-ray findings of early H1N1 pneumonia. Initially, her headaches were thought to be related to central nervous system manifestations of H1N1.

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A randomized trial was performed comparing azithromycin and levofloxacin for treating moderately to severely ill patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. This is a cost-minimization analysis comparing those regimens.

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Three hundred eighty-three isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were collected from healthy children aged less than 2 years in China and assessed for antimicrobial resistance. We found that 92.2% (n=353) produced a β-lactamase. Nonsusceptibility rates to erythromycin and azithromycin, determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, were 40.3% and 22.5%, respectively; nonsusceptibility rates determined using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics breakpoints, however, were 59% and 60.1%. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) values were >256 μg/ml. Nonsusceptibility rates varied by region from 9.7% in Dongguan to 75.9% in Jinan. Further, concomitant resistance to β-lactam antibiotics was also observed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 27/37 high-level macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates showed that closely related pulsotypes dominated, with a total of 11 different pulsotypes being observed. The closely related pulsotypes were observed in isolates originating from all six Chinese cities investigated, possibly as a consequence of the mobility of the Chinese population. Sixteen patterns of 23S rRNA mutations were found among 97 selected isolates using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, but no known ermA, ermB, mefA, or mefE genes could be detected. Mutations A2982T and A2796T in 23S rRNA were related to high-level macrolide resistance (MICs ranging from 24 to >256 μg/ml), while an A2983T mutation was associated with low-level macrolide resistance (MICs ranging from 0.19 to 16 μg/ml).

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April 2011 through December 2012, 16,646 laboratory-confirmed gonorrhea cases were identified, of which 9597 (57.7%) had treatment information: 2169 CDPH cases and 7428 non-CDPH cases. Documented recommended treatment increased for CDPH (period 1: 71.3%, period 2: 80.8%; P < 0.01) and non-CDPH providers (period 1: 63.5%, period 2: 68.9%; P < 0.01). Among CDPH cases, statistically significant factors associated with recommended treatment were male sex (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR], 1.16) white versus black race (aPRR, 0.68), same-day treatment (aPRR, 1.07), and period 2 (aPRR, 1.11). Among non-CDPH cases, statistically significant factors were as follows: male sex (aPRR, 1.10), other versus black race (aPRR, 0.91), same-day treatment (aPRR, 1.31), greater number of within-facility reported cases (aPRRs ranging from 1.22 to 1.41), and at least 50% within-facility missing treatment data (aPRR, 0.84).

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Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M. genitalium strains isolated from endocervical and urethral swab specimens from Cuban patients together with four reference strains isolated from specimens collected from men in Denmark, Sweden and Australia. Azithromycin was the most active drug against two of the Cuban M. genitalium strains with MICs values of 0.008 mg/liter, however, one strain was macrolide resistant with an MIC of >8 mg/liter, and the A2059G resistant genotype. Ciprofloxacin was the least active antimicrobial drug and moxifloxacin was the most active fluoroquinolone against the new clinical strains, although an MIC of 1 mg/l was found for two strains. However, no relevant parC mutations were detected. MICs for tetracyclines were 0.5-4 mg/liter. Although the number of Cuban strains was low, the results suggest that a single-dose azithromycin treatment could be ineffective, and that a second-line treatment with moxifloxacin, should become an option in Cuba. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of M. genitalium strains from the Latin-American region, and the first detection of macrolide resistance in such strains.

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The antibiotic treatment of chest infections which characterise cystic fibrosis (CF) has significantly improved prospects for people with CF. The nature of organisms causing these infections has restricted antibiotic choice. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, especially, is resistant to most oral antibiotics. There is evidence from the laboratory and from other disease processes that macrolide antibiotics, whilst not directly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, may have indirect actions against this organism.

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All the 48 Brucella isolates (47 blood samples and one synovial fluid) were identified as Brucella melitensis. No antimicrobial-resistant strains were recognised. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole had the lowest MIC 50 (0.016 μg/ml) and MIC 90 (0.064 μg/ml), whereas MIC 50 and MIC 90 of streptomycin and azithromycin had the highest level at 0.625, 1.5 µg/ml and 0.25, 1 µg/ml, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to rifampin, and only one of the isolates had a reduced sensitivity to rifampin (1 μg/ml).

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Despite high rates of beta-lactamase production among non-typeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, multiple oral treatment options exist for non-typeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Multidrug-resistant serotype 19A S. pneumoniae ( approximately 20%) limits treatment options for ambulatory S. pneumoniae respiratory disease.

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zithrox 500 medicine 2017-06-13

PBECs were established from bronchial brushings of stable lung transplant recipients and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml) for 48 hours. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were measured by Luminex analyzer. PBECs were Levocin Tablet then incubated with LPS and azithromycin, and protein levels were again determined.

zithrox plus dosage 2015-09-21

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and Southeast Asia, where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. High-quality incidence data from Asia are underpinning efforts to expand access Cefoprox Medicine to typhoid vaccines. Efforts are underway to develop vaccines that are immunogenic in infants after a single dose and that can be produced locally in countries of endemicity. The growing importance of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A in Asia is concerning. Antimicrobial resistance has sequentially emerged to traditional first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, posing patient treatment challenges. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The availability of full genome sequences for S. enterica serotype Typhi and S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A confirms their place as monomorphic, human-adapted pathogens vulnerable to control measures if international efforts can be redoubled.

zithrox plus tablet 2015-07-21

Our findings demonstrate that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost had no effect on the proliferation; neutral lipid content; lysosome number; or levels of free cholesterol, triglycerides, or phospholipids in IHMGECs. Cylosporine A, IL-1RA, rebamipide, and bimatoprost Dalacin Medicine significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, as compared to control. Of interest, tested doses of CyA above 8 nM killed the IHMGECs.

zithrox 500 tablet 2017-12-13

During each 2- to Levaquin 1 Gm Dose 4-week evaluation we analysed information collected at the central, district and community level through interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, direct observation of trachoma control activities, and existing data.

zithrox 250 tablet 2015-04-04

The Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) data from 2001-07 were examined for emerging trends in azithromycin susceptibility. Xiclav Tablete 1000 Mg Further to the identification of six high-level azithromycin-resistant isolates in GRASP 2007, an additional 102 isolates were selected on the basis of azithromycin susceptibility and geographic origin from the GRASP 2006 and 2007 collections. Susceptibility testing by Etest and disc diffusion was performed on all 108 isolates and 75 of these were typed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing.

zithrox syrup 2017-06-28

Sustained and high concentrations were encountered with 7-day approved administration of 1% azithromycin formulation (AzaSite, Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Durham, NC) within all ocular surface tissues, particularly the lids. Many ocular surface disorders involving the tear film, eyelids, and adnexal structures are associated with chronic, low-grade bacterial infection and may potentially lead to decreased vision secondary to corneal scarring. Various topical antibiotic and steroid combinations with or without oral tetracyclines are commonly used with variable Unimox Dosage clinical response and known potential side effects. The clinical relevance of this study is unknown; however, the long-lasting antibacterial and additional anti-inflammatory properties of topical azithromycin might offer an effective alternative treatment option and should be explored further in clinical studies.

zithrox 500 mg tab 2016-01-29

A 57-year-old Caucasian woman came to the clinic with symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. She was treated with a 5-day course of oral azithromycin 500 mg on day 1, then 250 mg/day for 4 days. During this period, the patient decreased her cigarette smoking from 1 pack/day to 1 pack every 3 days. No additional confounding variables were present. Two days after the completion of therapy, her international normalized ratio (INR) was 8.32. Six case reports documented in the literature have suggested an azithromycin-warfarin interaction with a resultant increase in INR. Many confounding variables existed in each of these cases, such as hepatic dysfunction, poor appetite, and concomitant drugs that resulted in an increased Ceftin 250 Mg Uses anticoagulant response. We report a case that involved only one potential confounding variable. Continued documentation of azithromycin-warfarin interactions is valuable considering no mention of this drug interaction exists in most tertiary references and in the package insert for azithromycin, the demonstration that no drug interaction occurred in a retrospective review of 52 cases, and the widespread use of azithromycin in the community. Clinicians should be mindful when prescribing azithromycin in combination with warfarin, and INR values should be monitored.

zithrox 500 dosage 2017-08-20

This article describes the case Azitromicina Jarabe 400 Mg of spontaneous splenic rupture as a rare complication of infection with Babesia species. We will discuss the symptomatology that this disease could present along with both surgical and non-surgical management approaches. Babesia infection often presents with mild to moderate symptoms, but can rapidly progress to significant injury including splenic rupture. The first case reported in a medical journal was in 2007. Treatment usually involves a two-drug regimen; clindamycin plus quinine, or atovaquone plus azithromycin (as in our patient). If hemodynamic stability is present, a primary non-surgical treatment may be especially beneficial since splenectomy may worsen optimal immunologic function and the infection itself.

zithrox xl 200 dosage 2015-08-18

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major bacterial pathogen of community-acquired respiratory tract infection and is usually found extracellularly, although studies have revealed that NTHi may possess the ability to invade human epithelial cells where it is then protected against attack by the local immune system and partly against the effect of antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of ampicillin, azithromycin, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, five antibiotics in common clinical use, to kill NTHi within bronchial epithelial cells.

zithrox 200 tablets 2016-08-10

There has been an increase in the number of pertussis cases reported since the introduction of the acellular pertussis vaccine. While children that present with pertussis have a characteristic whooping cough, adults can simply have a persistent, nonspecific cough and remain undiagnosed. Macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin, are the currently recommended treatment for pertussis. Solithromycin is a new macrolide and the first fluoroketolide with broad activity against a wide spectrum of bacterial pathogens and has completed clinical development for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. This study reports the potent in vitro activity of solithromycin against a collection of recent isolates of Bordetella pertussis.