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Forty-one (95%) clinical and 4 of 5 (80%) American Tissue Culture Collection isolates formed biofilms. All isolates were more susceptible to AZI (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC50 2 µg/mL) than erythromycin (MIC50 4 µg/mL), and biofilm formation did not significantly affect antibiotic susceptibility for the 2 tested antibiotics. The MIC50 and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC50) for Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical isolates for AZI were higher than for MIC50 and MBIC50 for Ureaplasma parvum isolates. There were no differences in MIC or MBICs among isolates from BPD infants and non-BPD infants.
Changing etiologic patterns and the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance, particularly an increase in macrolide-resistant pneumococcal bacteremia, are causing physicians to adopt new approaches to the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Macrolide resistance is an emerging problem in AIDS patients who receive these agents for treatment or prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium (MAC) infection. We compared the emergence of resistant MAC strains during therapy with clarithromycin (clarithromycin resistance was defined as MIC > or = 32 microg/ml) and azithromycin (azithromycin resistance was defined as MIC > or = 128 microg/ml) in C57BL/6 beige mice. Treatment with clarithromycin and azithromycin resulted in a decrease of 98.5% in the number of viable bacteria in spleens at week 8 and 99% at week 12 compared with the number of bacteria present in spleen before the initiation of therapy (P < 0.001). Splenic homogenates were also plated onto 7H11 agar plus clarithromycin at 32 microg/ml or azithromycin at 128 microg/ml. Resistance emerged significantly more often in mice treated with clarithromycin (100% of treated mice at both 8 and 12 weeks) than in those receiving azithromycin (0% at week 8 and 14% at week 12). The frequencies of resistance of the MAC population in the spleen to clarithromycin were 2.1 x 10(-3) at week 8 and 1.1 x 10(-2) at week 12, whereas resistance to azithromycin was absent at week 8 (all mice) and was approximately 3.5 x 10(-5) (mean for the three positive animals) at week 12. Clarithromycin was more effective in initial reduction of MAC burden in tissue after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, but resistant strains emerged significantly more frequently after treatment with clarithromycin than after treatment with azithromycin.
MAC has protean pulmonary manifestations, especially in those with no recognizable impairments in their immune system. Drug treatment, however, remains difficult with high failure rates and poor long-term sputum conversion. This case series is based on our clinical experience highlighting treatment options and the often unrecognized morbidity and mortality of severe, progressive MAC-PD. It underscores the need for increased awareness of MAC-PD and MDRMAC and the difficulties encountered in their management.
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S aureus was isolated from 6956 (21 · 6%) of 32,206 patients swabbed. The adjusted S aureus prevalence for patients older than 18 years ranged from 12 · 1% (Hungary) to 29 · 4% (Sweden). Except for penicillin, the highest recorded resistance rate was to azithromycin (from 1 · 6% in Sweden to 16 · 9% in France). In total, 91 MRSA strains were isolated, and the highest MRSA prevalence was reported in Belgium (2 · 1%). 53 different spa types were detected-the most prevalent were t002 (n = 9) and t008 (n = 8).
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An open, randomized, multicentre study compared the efficacy and safety of the prototype, azalide, azithromycin, and erythromycin in the treatment of atypical pneumonias. Azithromycin was administered for five days at a dosage of 250 mg bd on day 1 and 250 mg once daily on days 2 to 5. Erythromycin was given for ten days at 500 mg qid. Causative pathogens were identified by serological methods. Of 57 patients treated with azithromycin, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci were identified in 31 and eight patients, respectively. Of 44 patients treated with erythromycin, M. pneumoniae and C. psittaci were identified in 24 and eight patients, respectively. There were no therapeutic failures in either treatment group. Side effects were observed in one of 57 patients on azithromycin and in six of 44 patients on erythromycin. Azithromycin appears to be as effective as erythromycin in the treatment of atypical pneumonias and better tolerated.
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Under baseline assumptions, the azithromycin strategy incurred fewer major and minor complications and was less expensive overall than the doxycycline strategy despite a higher initial cost for acquiring antibiotic agents. In univariate sensitivity analyses, the azithromycin strategy prevented more major complications but was more expensive than the doxycycline strategy when doxycycline effectiveness was greater than 0.93. In a multivariate sensitivity analysis combining 11 parameter estimates selected so that the cost-effectiveness of the doxycycline strategy would be maximized relative to that of the azithromycin strategy, the azithromycin strategy resulted in fewer complications but was more costly. The incremental cost-effectiveness was $521 per additional major complication prevented. However, if the difference in the cost of azithromycin and doxycycline decreased to $9.80, the azithromycin strategy was less expensive and more effective, even under these extreme conditions.
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Trends in macrolide use (1993-1999) and resistance and factors associated with resistance, including examination of 2 subtypes, the M phenotype, associated with moderate minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and the MLS(B) phenotype, associated with high MICs and clindamycin resistance.
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Azithromycin and clarithromycin are structural analogues of erythromycin that have similar mechanisms of action. The newer macrolides have several distinct advantages over erythromycin, including improved oral bioavailability; longer half-life, allowing once or twice daily administration; higher tissue concentrations; and fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects. Clarithromycin and azithromycin also have enhanced antimicrobial activity. The clinical efficacy of the newer macrolides has been similar to erythromycin for the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infections. New therapeutic roles include the use of azithromycin for C. trachomatis infections and the inclusion of clarithromycin or azithromycin as part of therapeutic regimens for disseminated MAC infections in HIV-infected patients. Further clinical trials are needed to determine the optimal roles for and uses of these new macrolides.