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A retrospective review of clinic records over a 3 year period identified patients treated with a single 400 mg dose of cefixime for gonorrhea during pregnancy. Side effects and subsequent gonococcal carriage were noted.
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Fecal samples from 15 patients with active pouchitis (pouch disease activity index [PDAI], > or =7) who failed standard antibiotic treatment were inoculated onto Iso-sensitest agar. Antibiotic testing discs were added, incubated, and sensitivity patterns were recorded. Patients then were treated with antibiotics based on predicted sensitivity; PDAI scores were assessed 4 weeks later. Thirteen patients enrolled in the study had failed to enter remission after treatment with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole and 2 patients had relapsed after maintenance treatment with ciprofloxacin.
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In this randomized clinical trial, 80 teeth from 65 healthy children aged 3-6 years with interradicular or periapical root resorption and/or perforation in primary molars were treated either with 3Mixtatin or MTA before conventional pulpectomy and restoration. The subjects were followed up clinically and radiographically for 4, 6, 12 and 24 months after pulp treatment to evaluate and compare the healing process. The data were compared using chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05.
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To compare media used in immunomagnetic separation (IMS) techniques for the isolation of Escherichia coli O157 from food.
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Initial antibiotic therapy in upper and lower respiratory tract infections is usually empirical. However, the decreasing susceptibility of respiratory pathogens to antibacterials have raised concerns about the decreasing efficacy of currently available antibiotics.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms isolated from the nasopharynx of children who presented with acute otitis media (AOM) or otitis media that recurred after amoxicillin therapy. Nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 72 patients, 40 with AOM and 32 with recurrent otitis media (ROM), were analysed. Thirty-six potentially pathogenic organisms were recovered in 34 (85 %) of the children from the AOM group, and 42 were isolated from 29 (91 %) of the children from the ROM group. The organisms isolated were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 26), Haemophilus influenzae non-type b (n = 22), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 13), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 8) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9). Resistance to the eight antimicrobial agents used was found in 37 instances in the AOM group as compared to 99 instances in the ROM group (P < 0.005). The difference between AOM and ROM was significant with Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to amoxicillin (P < 0.005), to amoxicillin/clavulanate (P < 0.005), to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.01), to cefixime (P < 0.01) and to azithromycin (P < 0.01), and for H. influenzae resistance to amoxicillin (P < 0.025). These data illustrate the higher recovery rate of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae from the nasopharynx of children who had otitis media that recurred after amoxicillin therapy than those with AOM.
This verified treatment failure occurred in a patient infected with an MLST ST1901/NG-MAST ST1407 strain of N. gonorrhoeae. While this international strain commonly shows resistance or decreased susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the strain reported here remained fully susceptible to the latter antimicrobials. Hence, two subtypes of azithromycin-resistant gonococcal MLST ST1901/NG-MAST ST1407 appear to have evolved and to be circulating in Japan. Azithromycin should not be recommended as a single antimicrobial for first-line empirical treatment of gonorrhoea.
Results of our study indicate that 2 g single oral dose azithromycin is safe and effective in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea.
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Cefixime seems to be an acceptable alternative to the regimens containing an aminopenicillin and an aminoglycoside for the treatment of community-acquired non-complicated APN.
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The World Health Organization and local government health ministries in South Asia still recommend fluoroquinolones as the drug of choice in the treatment of enteric fever. This policy should change based on the evidence provided here. Rapid diagnostics are urgently required given the large numbers of suspected enteric fever patients with a negative culture.
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The central nervous system (CNS) is frequently involved in patients with Whipple's disease and is the most common site of disease relapse. Antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) that have reliable CNS penetration, are therefore recommended as first-line therapy. We report a patient with Whipple's disease who was treated with TMP-SMX and presented 14 months after initiation of therapy with visual decline and severe headaches. The patient was also treated concurrently with low-dose weekly methotrexate for severe psoriasis. Evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral posterior white matter abnormalities that pathologically were consistent with Whipple's disease. He was ultimately treated with cefixime, an orally administered third-generation cephalosporin. Visual function improved on this regimen and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed regression of the lesions. This case represents the first report of both CNS relapse during therapy with TMP-SMX and successful treatment with cefixime. We also speculate that methotrexate, which impairs cell-mediated immunity, may have contributed to the relapse.
To determine the benefits and harms of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children.