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Development and validation of novel, general liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin (AMOX), cefatoxime (CEF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), daptomycin (DAPTO), fluconazole (FLU), gentamicin (GEN), clindamycin (KLI), linezolid (LIN), metronidazole (MET), moxifloxacin (MOXI) in human whole blood are described. Samples were prepared on solid phase microextraction way with the use of polymeric sorption coatings with molecular imprints and analyzed using a gradient separation over an ACE C18-column (4.6mm×150mm, 3μm) with isocratic elution. Positive electrospray ionization was employed as the ionization source. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (0.1% formic acid or 5mM ammonium acetate) at a flow 0.4ml/min. The chromatographic run time was kept less than 9min. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation across three validation runs over the entire concentration range was less than 7.3%, while the accuracy was within ±8.4%. The mean recovery of all the analytes ranged from 65.0 to 83.0%. This method was successfully applied to clinical samples from patients with clinically diagnosed bacterial infections process.
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To investigate the in vitro acquisition of resistance to antibiotics by Bacillus anthracis.
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In surgery group, patients were significantly older than the others (44.9±5.4 versus 39.1±7.6 years). Fifty-six patients (74%) responded to antibiotics and 20 of the patients required surgical intervention. Patients treated with antibiotics were hospitalized for an average of 6.32±2.8 days versus 12.75±5.6 days for those who required surgery (p=0.021). Patients who were surgically treated had a mean size of TOA of 67.9±11.2 mm versus 53.6±9.4 mm for those treated with antibiotics alone (p=0.036). There were no significant differences between groups in laboratory parameters, except for initial white blood cell (WBC) counts. The complications of surgery included in descending order of frequency blood transfusions, surgical wound infections, bowel injury, and bladder injury.
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One month prior to hospitalization, a 22-year-old man of Hispanic origin had a tonsillar infection and cough and began to have anal pain. These conditions became exacerbated three weeks later, coinciding with a new tonsillar infection, frequent nonproductive cough, and febrile syndrome. He received clindamycin for four days prior to his admission, without improvement. While hospitalized, he was found to have fever, tonsillar abscess, hemorrhoid thrombosis, and anal fissure; the latter was immediately resected under general anesthesia. Before surgery, our patient's blood count showed intense leukoneutropenia and mild thrombocytopenia that increased 12 hours later, along with the establishment of anemia. A bone marrow study showed decreased cell content, micromegakaryocytes, and an interruption of the differentiation of granulocytes and erythroblasts. Post-surgery, our patient received metronidazole, meropenem, and amikacin along with acetaminophen, ketoprofen, omeprazole, and pegfilgrastim, with resulting clinical and hematological improvement.
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Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a grampositive rod wich belonged, until a short time ago, to Corynebacterium genus, and recently classified in a new genus, with only one specie. Human is the main reservoir. It has been isolated from the skin and pharinx of healthy individuals, but also it is cause of infection, specially pharingitis, in children, and chronic cutaneous ulcus, in diabetic patients. Less frequently, it is cause of osteomyelitis, meningitis, pneumonia, abscess, endocarditis and sepsis. Diagnosis is difficult because its double quality: comensal and pathogen. There are not established guidelines for the treatment of these infections, although most of isolated strains are susceptibles to penicillin, erythromicin, clindamycin and tetracycline. High doses of penicillin, with or without gentamicin, it is recommended for the treatment of deep infections.
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The authors have assessed the concentration of 7 antibiotics in the bile of patients undergoing biliary surgery or carriers of a T tube in the common bile duct. 1 hour preoperatively, 122 patients were administered with the following chemotherapeutic agents: Cefoxitin 2 g i.v.; Cefamandole 2 g i.v.; Ceftriaxone 1 g i.v.; Clindamycin 600 mg i.v.; Amikacin 500 mg i.v.; Gentamycin 160 mg i.v.; Norfloxacin 400 mg by mouth; 30 patients showed obstructive jaundice or obstructed cystic duct. Samples of bile were withdrawn from gallbladder and common bile duct. The same antibiotics were administered to 81 patients carrying a T tube. Samples of bile and serum were collected at baseline and every 30 minutes for 4 hours and subsequently at 12 and 24 hours following administration. 18 patients showed altered liver function tests. The chemotherapeutic agents were tested by the microbiological assay as well as by HPLC. Mean concentration in the gallbladder bile was: Cefoxitin 209 +/- 86 micrograms/ml; Cefamandole 436 +/- 108 micrograms/ml; Ceftriaxone 482.7 +/- 214.84 micrograms/ml; Clindamycin 64 +/- 22 micrograms/ml; Amikacin 5 +/- 1.4 micrograms/ml; Gentamycin 4 +/- 2 micrograms/ml; Norfloxacin 22 +/- 14 micrograms/ml. In the bile of jaundiced patients or with non-visualized gallbladder no antibiotics were detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Slime-producing coagulase-negative staphylococci are pathogens in vascular surgery by virtue of their ability to adhere to and persist on prosthetic graft material. Inguinal and abdominal skin sites were cultured in 41 patients upon hospitalization, and slime production and antimicrobial susceptibility were assessed in all recovered staphylococcal isolates. Twenty-one patients eventually underwent lower-extremity revascularization. In the operative population, cultures were also obtained on the day of surgery and fifth postoperative day. All 21 patients received perioperative cefazolin. Of 327 coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered, Staphylococcus epidermidis (47%), S. haemolyticus (21%), and S. hominis (10%) were the predominant isolates. Slime-producing coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 17 of 21 patients at admission but only from 8 of 21 patients on day 5 postoperation (P less than 0.05). S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated increasing multiple resistance from admission to 5 days postoperation to methicillin, gentamicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P less than 0.05). All coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Slime-producing capability was not associated with increased methicillin resistance for the recovered isolates. The data demonstrate that patients enter the hospital colonized with slime-producing strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci and that during hospitalization the staphylococcal skin burden shifts from a predominately susceptible to a resistant microbial population, which may enhance the importance of slime production as a risk factor in lower-extremity revascularization.
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The most frequent cutaneous reaction was acneiform eruption (10 cases). The patients were treated with topical erythromycin and clindamycin, or with doxycycline. Also reported were seborrheic dermatitis (5), paronychia (4), xerosis (3), mouth blisters (3), blepharitis (2), cheilitis (1), and fissures on the hands and feet (1). The first reactions to appear were seborrheic dermatitis (9.8 days until onset) and acneiform eruption (11.8 days), whereas the paronychia presented latest (65.3 days). One patient with acneiform eruption and another with paronychia suspended treatment until the lesions improved.