The point mutations of H. pylori were detected by PCR followed by RFLP technique in 50 clarithromycin-resistant strains collected between 1993 and 2004 in France.
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LAC is more effective than LA and OA for eradication of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer disease.
This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.
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Although omeprazole is an important component in anti-Helicobacter pylori therapeutic regimes using clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole, the mechanism by which it enhances antimicrobial action is unknown. One potential explanation for this effect is increased antibiotic chemical stability resulting from gastric pH changes induced by co-administration of omeprazole. The chemical stability of clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole was investigated in aqueous solutions and in human gastric juice collected before and after a 7-day course of omeprazole. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were prepared in buffered aqueous solutions of pH 1.0 to 8.0 and in gastric juice of pH 2.0 and 7.0. The gastric juice samples were obtained from fasted H. pylori-negative volunteers before and after they had received a 7-day course of omeprazole. All the samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and analysed at intervals by HPLC. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were stable in aqueous solutions of pH 4.0-7.0, pH 5.0-8.0 and pH 2.0-7.0, respectively. At pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 19.0 +/- 0.2 h, 1.3 +/- 0.05 h and 2200 +/- 1100 h, respectively. In gastric juice samples of pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 15.2 +/- 0.3 h, 1.0 +/- 0.04 h and > or = 800 h, respectively. The half-lives of the drugs in the gastric juice samples of pH 7.0 were all > 68 h. The co-administration of omeprazole with amoxycillin or clarithromycin is likely to increase the chemical stability of amoxycillin and clarithromycin in gastric juice. Clarithromycin degrades rapidly at normal gastric pH (1.0-2.0) but amoxycillin and metronidazole are sufficiently stable at this pH to maintain an antibacterial concentration in the stomach.
Fifteen-membered 8a-aza-8a-homoerythromycins derived from either erythromycin or clarithromycin have been acylated to form 4''-O-propenoyl derivative. These functionalized analogues underwent Michael reaction with primary or secondary amines to afford novel 8a-aza-8a-homoerythromycin-4''-(3-substituted-amino)propionates. This preparative sequence was adapted so that analogues could be made by parallel synthesis. Among them, 4-quinolone derivatives show particularly good antibacterial potency against macrolide resistant bacteria, comparable or better than azithromycin and telithromycin.
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A previously healthy 40-year-old male presented to us with progressively worsening CNS symptoms. The patient's presentation was uncharacteristic of MAC infection in immunocompetent hosts, as he developed subacute, progressive symptoms that included severe frontal headaches, left eyelid swelling, blurry vision, and diplopia, without any pulmonary or systemic manifestations. Neuroimaging revealed multiple ring-enhancing lesions, which required neurosurgical intervention. MAC was the only pathogen that grew from intraoperative tissue cultures. The patient was subsequently treated with a 12-month regimen consisting of Clarithromycin, Ethambutol, and Rifampin, with successful clinical resolution.
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Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.
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Our findings strongly suggest that monotherapy with levofloxacin is a safe and effective treatment for legionnaires disease, including in patients with severe disease. In these patients, levofloxacin appears to be more effective than clarithromycin.
Clarithromycin and erythromycin, but not josamycin, inhibited IL-13-stimulated periostin production. The inhibitory effects of clarithromycin were stronger than those of erythromycin. Clarithromycin significantly attenuated STAT6 phosphorylation induced by IL-13. Global gene expression analyses demonstrated that IL-13 increased mRNA expression of 454 genes more than 4-fold, while decreasing its expression in 390 of these genes (85.9%), mainly "extracellular," "plasma membrane," or "defense response" genes. On the other hand, clarithromycin suppressed 9.8% of the genes in the absence of IL-13. Clarithromycin primarily attenuated the gene expression of extracellular matrix protein, including periostin, especially after IL-13.
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Overexpression of YKL-40 was only found in carotid atherosclerosis group with CagA-positive helicobacter pylori infection; C-reaction protein failed to distinguish different infectious statuses of helicobacter pylori infection. In patients with CagA-positive helicobacter pylori infection, elevated YKL-40 expression was accompanied by more severe clinical symptoms. We also confirmed similar findings in rabbit model of carotid atherosclerosis with CagA-positive helicobacter pylori infection. We found that in 7 rabbits treated with anti-helicobacter pylori therapy, the serum YKL-40 level decreased and the plaque became more stable.
Pulmonary penetration of clarithromycin (CLR) in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALCs) can be influenced by CYP3A4, by P-glycoprotein, and, according to our hypothesis, by a member of the organic anion-transporting protein (OATP) family, for which rifampicin (RIF) is inhibiting in single doses but inducing after long-term coadministration. To assess the partial inhibitory effect, we measured absorption and pulmonary distribution of CLR after short-term (2.5-day) coadministration of RIF, after which up-regulation is not expected. The drug interaction study was performed with five doses (12-h interval) of CLR (7.5 mg/kg) and RIF (10 mg/kg) in nine healthy foals; horse transporters are very similar in protein sequence and transcriptional regulation to the human analogs. RIF was equally distributed in ELF but reached half the plasma levels in BALCs. The deacetylated metabolite accumulated 1.4- to 6-fold in ELF and 8- to 60-fold in BALCs. CLR did not significantly influence the distribution of RIF. CLR and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (14OH-CLR) accumulated approximately 20- to 40-fold and 1.5- to 4.5-fold in ELF and 300- to 1800-fold and 25- to 90-fold in BALCs, respectively. With RIF, plasma levels of CLR decreased by more than 70% without changes in 14OH-CLR formation, the half-lives of CLR and 14OH-CLR, and the 4β-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio (a surrogate for CYP3A4 induction). CLR was an inhibitor of OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 9.50 ± 3.50 μM), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 46.0 ± 2.27 μM), OATP1A2 (IC(50) = 92.6 ± 1.49 μM), and OATP2B1 (IC(50) = 384 ± 5.30 μM) but was not a substrate for these transporters in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. In conclusion, despite having no significant inducing effects, RIF decreased plasma levels of CLR below the minimal inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of growth of pathogenic bacteria, most likely through inhibition of an unknown intestinal uptake transporter.