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Since clinical prediction of bacterial presence in sputum at AECOPD is poor, sputum microbiological analysis should be considered for guiding antibiotic therapy in moderate-to-severe AECOPD, particularly in those who received concomitant systemic corticosteroids or are at risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
We conducted a blinded taste test evaluating 12 antimicrobial suspensions by smell, texture, taste, aftertaste and overall acceptance. Drugs received cumulative scores in each category as well as a total score ranking. Overall Lorabid scored highest but not significantly higher than Keflex, Suprax and Ceclor, all of which score higher than the other test drugs. Cefzil and Augmentin scored just below this group of drugs and higher than all other test drugs. Vantin was inferior to these drugs primarily because of its low score in aftertaste. It was ranked along with V-Cillin-K, Veetids, Sulfatrim and Pediazole, the lowest scoring group of drugs other than Dynapen which scored lower than all other test drugs. No difference overall was detected between the two penicillin VK suspensions evaluated, V-Cillin-K and Veetids.
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There is no convincing evidence that antibiotics are of value in this clinical setting.
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We identified four trials involving 1314 children. Three trials investigated the use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to prevent otitis and one investigated ampicillin to prevent pneumonia.The use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to placebo to prevent otitis showed a risk ratio (RR) of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 1.11, three trials, 414 selected children, moderate-quality evidence). Methods of random sequence generation and allocation concealment were not clearly stated in two trials. Performance, detection and reporting bias could not be ruled out in three trials.Ampicillin compared to supportive care (continuation of breastfeeding, clearing of the nose and paracetamol for fever control) to prevent pneumonia showed a RR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.49, one trial, 889 selected children, moderate-quality evidence). The trial was non-blinded. Random sequence generation and allocation concealment methods were not clearly stated, so the possibility of reporting bias could not be ruled out.Harm outcomes could not be analysed as they were expressed only in percentages.We found no studies assessing mastoiditis, quinsy, abscess, meningitis, hospital admission or death.
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This prospective multicenter study was conducted to define more clearly clinical and laboratory criteria that predict a strong probability of occult bacteremia and to evaluate the effect of empiric broad spectrum antimicrobial treatment of these children. Children 3 to 36 months old with fever > or = 40 degrees C (104 degrees F) or, > or = 39.5 degrees C (103 degrees F) with white blood cells (WBC) > or = 15 x 10(9)/liter, and no focus of infection had blood cultures obtained and were randomized to treatment with oral amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate or intramuscular ceftriaxone. Sixty of 519 (11.6%) study patients had positive blood cultures: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 51; Haemophilus influenzae b, 6; Neisseria meningitidis, 2; and Group B Streptococcus, 1. Subgroups of high risk were identified as fever > or = 39.5 degrees C and WBC > or = 15 x 10(9)/liter, 55 of 331 or 16.6% positive with increasing incidence of positive culture with increasing increments of degrees of leukocytosis to WBC > or = 30 x 10(9)/liter where 9 of 21 or 42.9% were positive. Subgroups of significantly lower risk were identified as fever > or = 39.5 degrees C and WBC < 15 x 10(9)/liter, 5 of 182 or 2.7% positive and those with WBC < 10 x 10(9)/liter, 0 of 99 or 0.0% positive. Children with positive cultures who received ceftriaxone were nearly all afebrile after 24 hours whereas a significant number who received amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate remained febrile. In the 459 culture-negative children more amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate-treated children developed diarrhea and had less improvement in clinical scores after 24 hours than ceftriaxone-treated children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A total of 1011 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment-order groups; 965 were evaluable for the taste and smell analyses. Baseline demographics of evaluable subjects were similar among test groups. Approximately even proportions of participants were female or male (50.1 % vs 49.9%), most (84.1%) were white, and slightly more participants were aged 7 or 8 years rather than younger (age 4 years, 16.0%; age 5 years, 17.4%; age 6 years, 18.7%; age 7 years, 23.2%; age 8 years, 24.8%). Of the 965 children who tasted both antibiotic suspensions and determined their preference, 798 (82.7%) rated the taste of cefdinir as really good or good (the highest possible ratings); 712 (73.8%) assigned the same ratings to amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, cefprozil, azithromycin, or generic amoxicillin (P < or = 0.001). With regard to smell, 671 (69.5%) rated the smell of cefdinir as really good or good; 636 (65.9%) assigned these same ratings to the comparator agents (P = NS).
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We describe an elderly patient with normal pre-existing liver functions who was treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and later ciprofloxacin for acute bronchitis. He developed a pattern of liver dysfunction consistent with hepatocellular injury, with clinical features of a hypersensitivity reaction, which may be attributable to either or both of the antimicrobial agents used. This gradually resolved over a 4-week time period, with conservative management. A review of the relevant literature on drug-induced hepatotoxicity is also presented.
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This study was done on the outpatients and hospitalized patients who were suffering from urinary tract infections in Türkiye Yüksek Ihtisas Hospital. 500 positive cultures were evaluated. E. coli was the predominant organism and it is followed by Klebsiella and Coliform bacteria. The sensitivity of the isolated bacteria were tested against various antibiotic discs using disc diffusion method. The sensitivity of the bacteria to the used antibiotics were as follows: Ceftazidime 96%, ofloxacin 95.6%, piperacillin 56.4%, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid 81.2%, amikacin 82.2%.
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Resistant strains of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are one of the principal causes of recurrent acute otitis media (otitis prone), rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia in young children. Beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains are particularly common in Japan, and beta-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant (BLPACR) strains are now emerging. We investigated the nasopharyngeal carriage status of these resistant strains among children attending a same day care center during a 10-year period.