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The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of tinidazole- versus clarithromycin-based triple regimens for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in North Indian patients of peptic ulcer disease, and to correlate the outcome with in vitro antibiotic susceptibility.
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Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Clarithromycin is a new macrolide antibiotic which is known to be highly effective in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In Chinese, the role of clarithromycin for H. pylori is still unclear.
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Polymicrobial communities are often recalcitrant to antibiotics. We tested whether the polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm can be eradicated with moxifloxacin. Twenty women with bacterial vaginosis were treated with 400 mg moxifloxacin for 5 days. The changes in the occurrence and proportions of Gardnerella, Atopobium and Lactobacillus spp. were assessed using FISH. The bacterial biofilm was investigated using desquamated epithelial cells of spontaneously voided urine and sections of vaginal biopsies. Fifteen of 20 women showed a significant and sustained clinical response to moxifloxacin according to Amsel and Nugent criteria. The concentrations of adherent bacteria decreased significantly. The incidence and proportion of Atopobium declined sustainably. The proportions of Lactobacillus in the biofilm mass increased following therapy. Initially, Gardnerella was the main component of the polymicrobial biofilm. Following treatment, Gardnerella was not accessible to FISH in the urine and vaginal samples of 75% of all women. Ten to 12 weeks after the end of therapy, Gardnerella biofilm was cumulatively present in 40%. This was not due to newly acquired disease, but due to reactivation of the persisting, but biochemically inactive biofilm. Despite clear clinical efficacy, and initially definite suppression of the biofilm, moxifloxacin was, similar to metronidazole, not able to eradicate the Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm in all patients.
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Development of resistance to standard therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is rapid. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of alternative treatment modalities for H. pylori. Compared treatments were standard triple treatment plus probiotic, sequential therapy with levofloxacin, and a 14-day regimen of PPI (proton pump inhibitor) and levofloxacin/amoxicillin combination.
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Rates and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitals in North America and Europe have increased since 2000 and correlate with dissemination of an epidemic strain characterized by higher than usual toxin A and B production, the presence of a third toxin, binary toxin, and high-level resistance to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The strain, which is restriction endonuclease analysis group BI, pulse-field gel electrophoresis type NAP1, and polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027, is designated BI/NAP1/027. How this strain has become so widely distributed geographically and produces such severe CDI is the subject of active investigation. The deletion at position 117 of the tcdC gene, a repressor of toxin A and B production, is one possible contributor to increased levels of the toxins. The role of binary toxin is unknown. Recent isolates of BI/NAP1/027 were found to be resistant to fluoroquinolones, which is likely to contribute to the dissemination of this strain. Other virulence factors such as increased sporulation and surface layer protein adherence are also under investigation. Infections caused by this organism are particularly frequent among elderly hospitalized patients, in whom the attributable 30-day mortality is greater than 5%. Major risk factors for BI/NAP1/027 infection include advanced age, hospitalization, and exposure to specific antimicrobials, especially fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. When CDI is severe, vancomycin treatment is more effective than metronidazole; for mild disease either agent can be used. Control of hospital outbreaks caused by BI/NAP1/027 is difficult but possible through a combination of barrier precautions, environmental cleaning, and antimicrobial stewardship.
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Resistance to clarithromycin (56.6%) was higher than to metronidazole (35.7%) in the H. pylori strains studied. Clarithromycin resistance was very high even in strains from paediatric patients not previously treated for H. pylori infection.
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Hydrogen peroxide represents a valid alternative to conventional treatments for recurrent bacterial vaginosis, and associates the absence of collateral effects with low costs, excellent tolerability and real therapeutic efficacy.