uroxacin de 200 mg
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are major food-borne pathogens associated with gastroenteritis and sometimes fatal haemolytic uraemic syndrome complication. Farm animals are asymptomatic carriers of STEC and contaminated meat is an important vehicle for zoonotic transmission from animals to humans. This study investigated the presence, virulence traits and antimicrobial susceptibility of seven potentially human pathogenic STEC serogroups (O157, O26, O91, O103, O111, O128 and O145) in the faeces and meat of food-producing animals in Ibadan, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty-four (7.3%) of 2133 samples were positive for STEC serogroups. The pathogens were detected in the faeces of cattle (15.2%), sheep (10.7%), goats (7.5%) and pigs (5.6%) as well as in beef (3.8%), goat-meat (1.7%) and pork (4.0%). All seven investigated STEC serogroups were found in cattle, all except O145 were found in sheep, three serogroups (O157, O26 and O111) were found in goats and three (O157, O111 and O128) in pigs. The rate of detection of each of the serogroups in all 2133 samples was: O157 (5.0%), O26 (0.2%), O91 (0.3%), O103 (0.3%), O111 (1.0%), O128 (0.2%) and O145 (0.1%). Of all 154 isolates, 11.0% had shiga toxin type 1 gene (stx(1)), 25.3% had stx(2) and 41.6% had stx(1)/stx(2); intimin gene (eaeA) was detected in 56.5% and enterohaemolysin gene (hlyA) in 75.3%. Among the O157 isolates, 24.5% were negative for stx genes but positive for eaeA and/or hlyA while 7.6% were negative for all four virulence genes. Fourteen different combinations of virulence genes were encountered but stx(1)/stx(2)/eaeA/hlyA combination was the most predominant. The percentage resistance of the isolates to the tested antimicrobial agents was: ampicillin (82.5%), chloramphenicol (42.9%), ciprofloxacin (22.1%), enrofloxacin (25.3%), nalidixic acid (37.7%), neomycin (24.0%), norfloxacin (20.8%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (75.3%). One hundred and forty-eight (96.1%) of all 154 isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antimicrobial agents while 69.5% were categorised as multi-drug resistant. Potentially pathogenic multi-drug resistant STEC isolates were recovered from the meat production chain in Nigeria. Unhygienic practices that predominate during slaughter and processing were observed to have contributed to faecal contamination and presence of STEC in meat.
uroxacin 400 mg norfloxacina
Norfloxacin, 400 mg twice daily, for 4 weeks.
uroxacin 200 mg posologia
Two hundred and sixty two cirrhotic patients with ascites and a previous episode of SBP were assigned randomly to receive either 1200 mg rifaximin or 400 mg of norfloxacin daily for 6 months. All patients were monitored clinically each month and with ascitic fluid examination at the end of 2 and 6 months if not clinically suspected of recurrence earlier.
uroxacin 400 mg precio
Ten adult patients with severe infections in an intensive care unit were treated simultaneously with 6 mg/kg pefloxacin and 7.5 mg/kg amikacin, infused i.v. over 1 h every 12 h for 5 days. Twelve h after the last infusion, pefloxacin alone was administered orally (400 mg tablet) every 12 h for 10 days. The pharmacokinetics of pefloxacin and its main metabolites, norfloxacin and pefloxacin N-oxide, were determined after the first (Day 1) and last (Day 5) infusions and after the last oral dose (Day 15). The kinetics of amikacin was determined after the first and the last infusion. The maximal and minimal steady-state plasma concentrations of amikacin were 27.3 and 3.3 mg/l. The total plasma clearance was 83.1 and 67.0 ml/min after the first and the last infusions, respectively, and the half-life was 3.9 and 5.0 h. The maximal and minimal steady-state plasma concentrations of pefloxacin were 13.1 and 7.9 mg/l after i.v. infusion and 13.4 and 9.0 mg/l after oral administration. Pefloxacin elimination (t1/2) increased from 11.3 h after the first infusion to 19.4 h after the last infusion and 21.1 h after the last oral dose. Total body clearance decreased from 90.8 (Day 1) to 51.9 (Day 5) and 56.4 ml/min (Day 15). The volume of distribution did not change significantly over the course of pefloxacin. Mean steady-state plasma concentrations of norfloxacin and pefloxacin N-oxide were respectively 0.5-0.6 mg/l and 0.9-1.3 mg/l after intravenous and oral administration of pefloxacin. There were no pharmacokinetic interaction between the drugs. The dosage regimen led to plasma concentrations of pefloxacin and amikacin within their therapeutic range.
uroxacin 400 mg posologia
Quinolones are widely used, broad spectrum antibiotics that can induce immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, presumably either IgE or T cell mediated, in about 2-3% of treated patients.
uroxacin 200 mg composicion
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. It is predominantly caused by Escherichia coli. The phylogenetic group and virulence genotype of E. coli isolates causing SBP were investigated, and the association of these characteristics with host factors and prognosis was examined. Seventy-six episodes of E. coli SBP that occurred over a 9-year period were studied. The phylogenetic group of the isolates and the presence of 36 virulence factor genes were investigated. The influence of bacterial and host factors on in-hospital mortality was assessed by multiple logistic regression. Phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D were found in 26%, 4%, 46% and 24% of the isolates, respectively. Virulence factor genes were more frequent in B2 isolates than in non-B2 isolates (mean virulence score 15.4 vs. 7.3, p <10(-4)). Ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly associated with non-B2 groups and a low virulence score. Host factors independently associated with a shift from B2 to non-B2 isolates were norfloxacin prophylaxis (OR 13.01, p 0.0213) and prothrombin ratio (OR 1.04 for a 10% decrease, p 0.0211). The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (OR 1.83, p 0.0007) and hospital-acquired SBP (OR 4.13, p 0.0247) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In contrast, outcome was not influenced by the phylogenetic group or the virulence profile. These findings indicate that the characteristics of E. coli isolates causing SBP vary with the severity of liver disease and with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. Host factors are more important than bacterial factors in predicting in-hospital mortality.
uroxacin 10 mg
Studies of cross resistance between norfloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin using 599 strains of non-fermentative gram-negative rods (297 Pseudomonas spp. and 302 Acinetobacter spp.) resulted in nearly identical minimal inhibitory concentrations of norfloxacin and enoxacin Comparing MIC values, in most ofloxacin was one to four dilution steps superior to enoxacin, and ciprofloxacin was one to four dilution steps superior to ofloxacin. There was not much difference in MICs when species were studied in more detail. In some instances susceptibility testing with more than one new quinolone may be necessary, and evaluation criteria are given.
uroxacin 400 mg
In order to develop structure-activity relationships and to provide access to antibacterial agents for dual action studies, a variety of aryl group-substituted 2-aryl-5-nitro-1H-indoles were synthesized and the activity of the compounds assessed as inhibitors of the NorA multidrug resistance pump in the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The NorA protein from the major facilitator superfamily of efflux pumps confers resistance to a variety of structurally dissimilar antimicrobials such as norfloxacin, ethidium bromide, berberine and acriflavin. The compound [4-benzyloxy-2-(5-nitro-1H-2-yl)-phenyl]-methanol was the most potent pump inhibitor.
prospecto uroxacin 400 mg
To evaluate AP prescription tendencies for gastrointestinal bleeding, and primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).
uroxacin norfloxacina 400 mg
The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max=6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max=193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max=292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max=448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally- and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.
uroxacin 200 mg precio
Having considered the bacteriological and clinical findings, as well as tolerance levels, we are able to conclude that a single oral dose of Trometamol Phosphomicine is a good alternative to conventional therapy for the treatment of low-level Urinary Infections Which present no complications.
uroxacin 200 mg
A new class of heterocyclic compounds with potent antibacterial activity, namely, 2-substituted amino-3-fluoro-5,12-dihydro-5-oxobenzothiazolo[3, 2-a]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids, is described. The compounds are conformationally restricted analogues of 7-substituted amino-6-fluoro-1-aryl-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acids. Compounds 7 and 10, having a 4-methylpiperazinyl and a piperazinyl substitution at the 2-position, respectively, possess in vitro antibacterial activities comparable to norfloxacin (15). Compound 8, which has a 4-acetylpiperazinyl substitution at the 2-position, is active against Gram-positive organisms and nearly inactive against Gram-negative organisms. An efficient and short synthesis of this novel heterocyclic system via an intramolecular nucleophilic displacement cyclization reaction is reported.