uroflox 600 mg
Shigella species have been one of the most common causes of acute diarrhea in Bangkok, Thailand. The incidence of shigellosis increased steadily from 1984 to 1988. The majority of Shigella species isolated from specimens from patients with acute diarrhea in Bangkok in 1988 were resistant to both ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ). Shigella flexneri was the most commonly isolated organism and had the highest rate of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, TMP-SMZ, and tetracycline. The antimicrobial agents of choice for the treatment of shigellosis have been changed from ampicillin to TMP-SMZ and recently to the fluoroquinolones. We conducted a controlled study of norfloxacin that revealed its efficacy for eradication of Shigella species from the stool of both adults and children. The fluoroquinolones shorten the course of diarrhea, reduce the shedding of the organism, and prevent the spread of infection. No short-term adverse effects of the quinolones were observed in this study; however, its use among children should be restricted to treatment of severe shigellosis and the duration of treatment should be as short as possible.
uroflox 200 mg precio
A rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for the residue analysis of ten quinolones (enoxacin (ENO), ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), oxolinic acid (OXO), nalidixic acid (NAL), and flumequine (FLU)) in cow's milk. The analytes were extracted from milk by a deproteinization step followed by a simple SPE cleanup procedure using LiChrolut RP-18 Merck cartridges. Recoveries varied between 75 and 92%. HPLC separation was performed at 25 degrees C using an ODS-3 PerfectSil Target (250 x 4 mm(2)) 5 microm analytical column (MZ-Analysentechnik, Germany). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of TFA 0.1%-CH(3)CN-CH(3)OH, delivered by a gradient program at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Elution of the ten analytes and the internal standard (caffeine, 7.5 ng/microL) was completed within 27 min. Column effluent was monitored using a photodiode array detector, set at 275 and 255 nm. The developed method was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The LODs of the specific method of quinolones' determination in milk varied between 1.5 and 6.8 ng/microL.
uroflox 750 mg
The conditions required to kill Serratia marcescens with nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin or ofloxacin were determined in nutrient broth and in phosphate-buffered saline. They were found to be similar to the conditions required for these 4-quinolones to kill Escherichia coli. Bacterial RNA synthesis and bacterial cell division were essential for the bactericidal activity of nalidixic acid but all three fluoroquinolones were bactericidal against non-dividing S. marcescens. However, as with E. coli, bacterial RNA synthesis was essential for the bactericidal activity of norfloxacin though this was not required to kill S. marcescens with ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin.
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In 1993, we reviewed three fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). Since then, four more fluoroquinolones have been awarded marketing authorisations. Here we review the clinical evidence and discuss the place of two of these drugs, grepafloxacin (Raxar-GlaxoWellcome) and levofloxacin (Tavanic-Hoechst Marion Roussel). Sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin are not considered, as they are not yet commercially available.
This assay method was valid within a wide range of plasma concentrations and may be proposed as a suitable method for pharmacokinetic studies, therapeutic drug monitoring implementation, and routine clinical applications, especially for some populations of patients who receive a combination of these drugs.
uroflox de 200 mg
A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, IR and HRMS spectra. All the new compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities in vitro by two-fold serial dilution technique. Bioactive assay manifested that the bis-benzimidazole derivative 11d and its hydrochloride 13b exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activities, which were comparable or even better than the reference drugs Norfloxacin, Chloromycin and Fluconazole. The interaction evaluation of compound 11d with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by Fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic method showed that BSA could generate fluorescent quenching under approximately human physiological conditions by the prepared benzimidazole compound 11d as result of the formation of ground-state compound 11d-BSA complex. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played major roles in the strong association of benzimidazole 11d and BSA.
The in vitro activity of four new quinolones against 355 obligate anaerobes was investigated. MICs were determined using the reference method of Sutter et al. . The four fluorinated quinolones tested differ from nalidixic acid which is inactive on most anaerobes except for some Clostridium perfringens strains. All strains tested were inhibited by 64 and 16 mg/l pefloxacin and ofloxacin respectively. Except for Bacteroides, all strains were inhibited by 64 mg/l norfloxacin or enoxacin. Clostridium strains other than C. perfringens exhibited heterogeneity; C. difficile and C. ramosum had the highest MICs. Bacteroides fragilis proved less susceptible to fluorinated quinolones than the other obligate anaerobes. Ofloxacin showed the greatest activity, with 4 mg/l inhibiting 100% of C. perfringens and 83% of all anaerobes investigated.
uroflox de 500 mg
A rapid and simple multi-residue procedure is described for assaying eleven quinolones (cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in feeds at sub-additive levels (1-5 mg kg(-1)). Five grams of sample were extracted by a metaphosphoric acid/acetonitrile mixture (70/30, v/v) and purified onto OASIS HLB cartridges. The determination was achieved by liquid chromatography (LC) using a GEMINI C18 analytical column both with fluorescence detection (FD) and photodiode-array (DAD). Limits of detection for each drug were in the range 0.04-0.8 mg kg(-1). Above the limit of quantification (LOQ), in poultry feed the recoveries were from 69 to 98% with relative standard deviations less than or equal 10%. Finally the measurement uncertainty was estimated using the bottom-up approach.
uroflox 400 mg
Monoclonal anti-enrofloxacin antibody was prepared for a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and purification system using monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupled magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The IC50 values of the developed mAb for enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, sarafloxacin, pefloxacin, and norfloxacin were 5.0, 8.3, 9.7, 21.7, 36.0, and 63.7 ng/mL, respectively. The lowest detectable level of ENR was 0.7 ng/mL in the prepared ELISA system. To validate the developed ELISA in the food matrix, known amounts of ENR were spiked in meat and egg samples at 10, 20 and 30 ng/mL. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 72.9 to 113.16% with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.42 to 10.11%. The applicability of the mAb-MNP system was verified by testing the recoveries for ENR residue in three different matrices. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 75.16 to 86.36%, while the CV ranged from 5.08 to 11.53%. Overall, ENR-specific monoclonal antibody was prepared and developed for use in competitive to ELISAs for the detection of ENR in animal meat samples. Furthermore, we suggest that a purification system for ENR using mAb-coupled MNPs could be useful for determination of ENR residue in food.
uroflox 200 mg
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of norfloxacin in comparison with ofloxacin, pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin against 662 strains. The studied strains were obtained from urine, during 2003 period, in Eastern region of Romania. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar by the dilution technique, with an inoculum of 10(5) CFU/spot. Among tested quinolones, norfloxacin has the better activity against tested strains. The fluoroquinolone compounds were very potent against Escherichia coil strains. Our data shown the spread of quinolone resistance in our area and demonstrated the necessity of adequate antibiotic use in the hospital and community.
To investigate the cost-effectiveness of two outpatient treatment strategies, TMP-SMX and norfloxacin, for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in adult women between the ages of 18 and 65 years.