In summary, recent advances in our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent recurrences of pneumocystis pneumonia have significantly improved the clinical management of this infection, especially in HIV-1-infected individuals. As current investigations allow our therapeutic armamentarium in this disease to be strengthened even further, it is likely that pneumocystis pneumonia will pose a diminishing threat to those patients currently most susceptible to this infection.
Eighty-three isolates of ampicillin and chloramphenicol resistant Haemophilus influenzae were tested for susceptibility to fifteen antibiotics by the agar dilution method. Fifty-four were from paediatric patients with H. influenzae disease and 29 from nasopharyngeal carriers (pre-school children). Twenty-five strains belonged to serotype b, one to serotype a, one to serotype c and the rest were non-typable. All strains produced beta-lactamase and inactivated chloramphenicol in a rapid bioassay, suggesting the production of chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase. The most active drugs were ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, latamoxef, aztreonam and desacetyl-cefotaxime (MIC90: 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.25 mg/l, respectively). Cefuroxime, rifampicin and imipenem (MIC90 1 mg/l), and the combination of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (MIC90 2:1 mg/l), also showed good activity. Cefaclor, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and cotrimoxazole were the least active of the drugs studied. The excellent in-vitro activity of the new beta-lactam agents against H. influenzae resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol offers a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of serious infections caused by these micro-organisms.
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One-hundred seven patients with COPD (mean age +/- SD, 66.9 +/- 9.5 years) experienced 232 exacerbations over 24 months. First-line antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin/amoxicillin, and erythromycin) were used to treat 78% of all exacerbations. Treatment failure was noted in 12.1% of first exacerbations and 14. 7% of all exacerbations, with more than half the failures requiring hospitalization. Host factors that were independently associated with treatment failure included the following: FEV(1) < 35% (46.4% vs 22.4%; p = 0.047), use of home oxygen (60.7% vs 15.6%; p < 0. 0001), frequency of exacerbation (3.8 +/- 2.0 vs 1.6 +/- 0.91; p < 0. 001), history of previous pneumonia (64.3% vs 35.1 p < 0.007), history of sinusitis (28.6% vs 8.8%; p < 0.009) and use of maintenance steroids (32.1% vs 15.2% p = 0.052). Using stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify the top independent variables, the use of home oxygen (p = 0.0002) and frequency of exacerbation (p < 0.0001) correctly classified failures in 83.3% of the patients. Surprisingly, age, the choice of an antibiotic, and the presence of any one or more comorbidity did not affect the treatment outcome.
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A distinct clinical syndrome of cholestasis and hepatitis occurred during early infancy in seven infants with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection. In five infants hepatitis was the first manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection. The median age of onset of hepatitis was 7 months (range, 5 to 10 months). The mean total bilirubin concentration at presentation was 7.4 mg/dl (range, 3.9 to 11 mg/dl), the mean aspartate aminotransferase was 1512 IU/liter (range, 782 to 2960 IU/liter) and the mean alanine amino-transferase 512 IU/liter (range, 92 to 1247 IU/liter). The absolute CD4 count at the time of onset of hepatitis ranged from 191 to 2298 cells/mm3 (mean, 766 cells/mm3). Six of the seven children died within 12 weeks of onset of hepatitis, three as a result of complications of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and two died of complications secondary to cytomegalovirus. In only one infant was the cause of death the direct consequence of liver failure. The seventh infant died 17 months after the onset of hepatitis of dilated cardiomyopathy. No specific etiologic agent has been identified as the cause of cholestatic hepatitis in these infants. In situ hybridization studies to detect human immunodeficiency virus 1 messenger RNA was negative in the liver tissue obtained at biopsy and autopsy in five of the samples tested.
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S. pneumoniae exhibit almost universal co-trimoxazole resistance in vitro and in silico that we believe is driven by extensive co-trimoxazole and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use. More than one-third of pneumococci employ a novel mechanism of co-trimoxazole resistance. Resistance has now reached a point of stabilizing evolution. The use of co-trimoxazole to prevent pneumococcal infection in HIV/AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa should be re-evaluated.
Little is known about the clinical characteristics of invasive infections caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella sp. in childhood and the temporal changes of their incidence over a long period of time. In order to clarify these issues, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 17 such infected children admitted between August 1994 and December 2014 to our center. We divided the study period into the first (1994-1999), second (2000-2004), third (2005-2009), and fourth (2010-2014) periods. The ages of the 17 patients ranged from 2 days to 13 years. Clinical syndrome included bacteremia with enteritis (n = 13), followed by bacteremia or sepsis alone, (n = 2), osteomyelitis (n = 1), and meningitis (n = 1). The affected patient numbers in the first to fourth periods were 10, 5, 2, and 0, respectively, and the decreasing trend was significant (trend p < 0.001). This significant trend held up even after correction by the number of in-patients during each quarter period (trend p = 0.009). In the 14 cases of bacteremia with or without enteritis, excluding two neonatal cases and one case of osteomyelitis, most patients (n = 13, 93%) had WBC of <15,000/µL with a wide range of serum CRP levels (0.8-20.4mg/dL) on admission. Thus, it was very difficult to diagnose these bacteremia cases based on blood tests alone, and we needed to consider such risk factors of bacteremia as high fever, poor general condition, and younger age. O group serotypes of the isolates were as follows: O9 (n = 11), O7 (n = 5), and O4 (n = 1). Of the 15 strains evaluated, two strains were resistant to ampicillin and one each was resistant and intermediately resistant to fosfomycin. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, ofloxacin or levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. We were also presented with two rare cases : one involved sepsis due to vertical transmission and the other involved meningitis. The latter case had clinical relevance in that recurrence developed 3 weeks after treatment with susceptible antibiotics. In conclusion, this study is the first report on invasive infections caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella sp. in childhood in Japan, and provides important information on their clinical features and incidence trends over the last 20 years.
Sphenoid sinusitis with infratemporal fossa abscess is an exceptional mode of presentation of nocardiosis, illustrating the polymorphic clinical features of this disease. Bacteriological examination of samples taken directly from the organ concerned, in this case, by sphenoidotomy, is the only formal diagnostic criterion. Antibiotic therapy with intravenous imipenem/amikacin, followed by oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim Forte(®)) for several months, is the key to successful management.
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HIV infection was first reported in 1981 in USA. It has been 20 years since then. Owing to understandings of pathogenesis of this disease and development of new drugs such as the HIV-specific protease inhibitor (PI), prognosis of disease has been tremendously improved. Especially after 1997 in Japan, the strategy of anti-HIV treatment shifted from two drugs combination to three drugs combination, which is called highly active antiretoviral therapy (HAART). HAART was so effective that prevalence of HIV associated opportunistic infections were decreased dramatically. Mortality among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was decreased from 6.7% in 1996 to 2.6% since then in ACC. However, 80% of patients receiving HAART suffered from side effects and 15% of them had to be changed their treatment due to side effects. Furthermore, an unexpected side effect, namely lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS), was emerged among patients who were receiving HAART more than one year. LDS was first reported as re-distribution of lipid such as central obesity with or without lipo-atrophy from extremities and/or face. Now only cosmetic change, but also it is associated with elevation of lipid and glucose level. Therefore, those patients who have LDS are in face of the risk for the ischemic heart diseases. Our survey indicated that the rate of LDS in Japanese patients were almost same as that of Caucasian patients reported elsewhere. Opportunistic infections associated with HIV infection Treatment for HIV infection consists of two major arms; one is use of anti-HIV drugs to prevent development of AIDS described above and the other is diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. There are five very important opportunistic infections; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcus meningitis, toxoplasma encephalitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia. Because if these five were able to diagnose, a patient can survive under appropriate treatment. On the other hand, if these were not diagnosed, patient must be AIDS death. After introducing HAART, number of CMV retinitis, MAC bacteremia, and AIDS dementia complex were decreasing. However, number of PCP sustained high because PCP is the first indicator disease of AIDS if the patient did not know his HIV status. The first choice of drug is sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) for PCP treatment. If the patient were in severe respiratory failure, corticosteroid is used concomitantly. Treatment is usually continued for 3 weeks. We have successfully treated 45 out of 47 cases of PCP for 4 years. However, those patients treated with ST for 3 weeks were limited only 35% because of very high rate of side effects of ST. If the patient was intolerant to ST, treatment was switched to pentamidine. After finishing the treatment, the patient is to be treated with a 5-day course of oral desensitization to ST. More than 80% of patients who were previously intolerant to ST became successfully getting tolerance by this method.