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Pyogenic spondylodiscitis associated with epidural abscess is a rare but serious problem in spinal surgery, because it may cause a severe morbidity or mortality, if the diagnosis is established late and the treatment is inadequate. A case of pyogenic thoracic spondylodiscitis associated with epidural abscess whose symptoms progressed over two months from back pain to acute paraplegia was presented. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine suggested the presence of T9-10 spondylodiscitis with partial destruction of the T9 and T10 vertebral bodies and concomitant epidural abscess. Treatment consisting of surgical debridement of infected vertebrae and disc material, fusion and anterior spinal instrumentation was performed. Microbiological culture of the material revealed infection with Staphylococcus aureus and after 3 months of antibiotic treatment, recovery was almost complete. Based on a thorough review of the literature and the case presented in this report, it is concluded that accurate and prompt diagnosis requires high index of suspicion followed by a combination of adequate surgical and conservative treatment prevents severe morbidity in cases of nonspecific pyogenic spondylodiscitis associated with epidural abscess.
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The activity of phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV), ampicillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, co trimoxazole, doxycycline and erythromycin against clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococci, group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus in 1983 was investigated with the MIC-method (plate-dilution technique). Forty-six percent of B. catarrhalis, 2% of H. influenzae and 78% of S. aureus were beta-lactamase producing and had high MIC-values for penicillin and ampicillin. Thus MIC for 90% of all strains of B. catarrhalis was 32 mg/l and 8 mg/l for penicillin and ampicillin while MIC for 90% of non beta-lactamase producing Branhamella strains was 2 mg/l and 0.25 mg/l respectively. This indicates a high susceptibility of penicillins to the action of Branhamella beta-lactamase. Almost all strains of B. catarrhalis, pneumococci, group A streptococci and S. aureus were inhibited at low concentrations of erythromycin. However, 4 mg/l was required to inhibit 90% of H. influenzae. Co-trimoxazole and doxycycline had good activity against all B. catarrhalis and H. influenzae strains while a few pneumococci, streptococci and staphylococci had intermediate sensitivity or were resistant. Essentially all strains were sensitive to cefuroxime and chloramphenicol.
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Pediatric Lyme arthritis is more benign in younger children. Lyme arthritis should be excluded as a possible cause of arthritis prior to the administration of intraarticular steroids.
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Girls with breakthrough UTIs usually have voiding dysfunction and/or reflux, and in these girls double antimicrobial prophylaxis and attention to voiding dynamics were effective in preventing further UTIs.
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Data on the population effectiveness of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African children are few.
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A case of cervical spine infection due to Streptococcus anginosus is reported. Streptococcus milleri is encountered in the mouth, gastro-intestinal tract, vagina and nasopharynx. It is an uncommon pathogen responsible of suppurative infections such as brain liver or spleen abscesses, intra-abdominal or soft tissue abscesses and pleural empyema. In rare cases it can cause spondylodiscitis and osteomyelitis. Based on the review of eight cases of spondylodiscitis or osteomyelitis, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
A case of life-endangering post-operative haemorrhage due to thrombocytopenia resulting from administration of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole is described. Withdrawal of the drug led to complete recovery. This side effect should be kept in mind, especially in patients scheduled for surgical intervention. As thrombocytopenia may develop insidiously and gradually, it is highly recommended to perform full blood tests immediately prior to surgery and repeat them in the post-operative period.
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A deletion of a telomerase RNA component (Terc(-/-)) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice resulted in hematopoietic lineage skewing with increased neutrophils and CD11b(+) myeloid cells and decreased red blood cells and CD45R(+) B lymphocytes when animals reach ages older than 12 months. There was no decline in bone marrow (BM) c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) (KSL) cells in old Terc(-/-) mice, and the lineage skewing phenomenon was not transferred when BM cells from old Terc(-/-) donors were transplanted into young B6 recipients. Necropsy and histological examinations found minimal to no change in the lung, spleen and liver but detected severe epithelia degeneration, ulceration and infection in small and large intestines, leading to enteritis, typhlitis and colitis in old Terc(-/-) mice. In a mouse model of dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced typhlitis and colitis, development of intestinal pathology was associated with increases in neutrophils and CD11b(+) myeloid cells and a decrease in CD45R(+) B cells, similar to those observed in old Terc(-/-) mice. Treatment of 11-13 month old Terc(-/-) mice with antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfa water reduced neutrophils and myeloid cells and increased B lymphocytes in the blood, indicating that mitigation of intestinal infection and inflammation could alleviate hematological abnormalities in old Terc(-/-) animals.
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In a case-control study, we investigated common demographic variables and immunological parameters. Nine PCP cases diagnosed between August 2006 and April 2007 were matched with 18 control patients, who did not develop PCP, received their transplant in the same time-period and had a similar follow-up period with a comparable immunosuppressive drug regimen.