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The acid-resistant character of E. coli O157:H7 is a consistent trait and may be used for improved isolation of the organism from mixed cultures.
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A methodology used to isolate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from water and survival of this pathogen in inoculated water is described. The methodology used in the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 included the use of selective plating on Sorbitol MacConkey agar (supplemented with potassium tellurite [2.5 mg/liter], cefixime [0.05 mg/liter], and cefsulodin [10 mg/liter], and modified hemorrhagic colitis agar (also supplemented with potassium tellurite [2.5 mg/liter]) and cefsulodin [10 mg/liter]). There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) between the recoveries of E. coli O157:H7 on these two selective media. Direct plating on these selective agars was used to determine the length of time that E. coli O157:H7 was able to grow, remain viable, and be resistant to the selective agents. E. coli O157:H7 survived in inoculated water for up to > 300 days, depending on the type of water. Observation by scanning electron microscopy indicated that E. coli O157:H7 cells attached to, and multiplied on, the container walls.
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Antibiotic coliform sensitivity testing showed ciprofloxacin resistance in all samples, co-amoxiclav resistance in 4 samples, trimethoprim resistance in 11 samples, and cefixime resistance in 8 samples. All 15 patients were treated with an antibiotic to which their fecal coliforms were sensitive; 12 (80%) achieved clinical remission (PDAI score, 0).
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To examine: 1) types of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity of commonly used antibiotics for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in Thailand, 2) the effectiveness of using antibiotics according to antimicrobial sensitivity, and 3) the effectiveness of using antibiotics according to the Thai clinical practice guidelines (CPG) of ABRS.
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Cefpodoxime has been found to be a well-tolerated and superior alternative to cefixime synergistically documenting the extended spectrum of activity.
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During 2010-2013, the proportions of resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates were as follows: tetracycline 36%, ciprofloxacin 28%, penicillin G 9%, azithromycin 5%, and cefixime 0.5%. Only one (0.5%) β-lactamase producing isolate was detected. No isolates resistant to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin were identified. Overall, the resistance levels to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and penicillin G were relatively stable. Interestingly, the level of resistance to azithromycin declined from 12% in 2010 to 0% in 2013 (P < 0.05). In total, 70 NG-MAST STs were identified. The predominant STs were ST1993 (n=53), ST807 (n=13), ST285 (n=8) and ST9735 (n=8). Many novel STs (n=43, 61%), representing 41% of all isolates, were found.
Globally, increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoea has led to decreased treatment options for gonorrhoea. Continuous monitoring of resistance is crucial to determine evolving resistance trends in Neisseria gonorrhoea and to suggest treatment recommendations. Quality assured gonococcal AMR data from Pakistan are mainly lacking. This study was performed to determine prevalence and trends of gonococcal AMR and molecular epidemiology of local strains during 2012-2014 in Karachi, Pakistan.
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The frequencies of isolation and susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents were investigated on 704 bacterial strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during the period of June 1995 to May 1996. Of the above bacterial isolates, Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 29.8% and a majority of them were Enterococcus faecalis. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 70.2% and most of them were Escherichia coli. Susceptibilities of several isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as followed; 1. Enterococcus faecalis Ampicillin (ABPC) and imipenem (IPM) showed the highest activities against E. faecalis isolated from patients with UTIs. The MIC90S of them were 1 microgram/ml. Vancomycin (VCM) and piperacillin (PIPC) were also active with the MIC90S of 2 micrograms/ml and 4 micrograms/ml, respectively. The others had low activities with the MIC90S of 16 micrograms/ml or above. 2. Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA VCM showed the highest activities against S. aureus isolated from patients with UTIs. Its MIC90 was 1 microgram/ml against both S. aureus and MRSA. Arbekacin (ABK) was also active with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml. The other except minocycline (MINO) had very low activities with the MIC90S of 64 micrograms/ml or above. 3. Staphylococcus epidermidis ABK and MINO showed the strongest activities against S. epidermidis isolated from patients with UTIs. The MIC90S of them were 0.25 microgram/ml. VCM was also active with the MIC90 of 1 microgram/ml. The MIC90S of cephems ranged from 2 micrograms/ml to 16 micrograms/ml in 1994, but they ranged from 8 micrograms/ml to 128 micrograms/ml in 1995. These results indicated that some resistances existed among S. epidermidis to cephems. 4. Streptococcus agalactiae All drugs except gentamicin (GM) were active against S. agalactiae. ABPC, cefmenoxime (CMX), IPM, erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM) and clarithromycin (CAM) showed the highest activities. The MICs for all strains were lower than 0.125 microgram/ml. The MIC90S of the others were 2 micrograms/ml or below. 5. Citrobacter freundii IPM showed the highest activity against C. freundii isolated from patients UTIs. Its MIC90 was 1 microgram/ml. GM was also active with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml. Cefpirome (CPR), cefozopran (CZOP) and amikacin (AMK) were also active with the MIC90S of 4 micrograms/ml. Penicillins and cephems except CMX, CPR and CZOP showed low activities with MIC90S of 256 micrograms/ml or above. 6. Enterobacter cloacae IPM showed the highest activity against E. cloacae. The MICs for all strains were equal to or lower than 1 microgram/ml. MINO and tosufloxacin (TFLX) were also active with the MIC90S of 8 micrograms/ml. Penicillins and cephems except CPR and CZOP showed lower activities with the MIC90S of 256 micrograms/ml or above. 7. Escherichia coli. Most of the antimicrobial agents were active against E. coli. Particularly CPR, CZOP and IPM showed the highest activities against E. coli. The MICs for all strains were equal to or lower than 0.5 microgram/ml. CMX and TFLX were also active with the MIC90S of 0.125 microgram/ml or below. Penicillins were slightly active with MIC90S of 128 micrograms/ml or above. 8. Klebsiella pneumoniae K. pneumoniae was susceptible to all drugs except penicillins, with MIC90S of 2 micrograms/ml or below. Carumonam (CRMN) had the strongest activity against K. pneumoniae, the MICs for all strains were equal to or lower than 0.125 microgram/ml. Comparing with the result of 1994, the sensitivities of K. pneumoniae against all drugs had obviously changed into a better state. For example, the MIC90S of cephems ranged from 0.25 microgram/ml to 16 micrograms/ml in 1994, but they were all lower than 2 micrograms/ml in 1995. 9. Proteus mirabilis P. mirabilis was susceptible to a majority of drugs. CMX, ceftazidime (CAZ), cefixime (CFIX), and CRMN showed the highest activities against P. mirabilis isolated from patients with UTIs. MICs of CRMN for all