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Studies have demonstrated that thickened mucous layers in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients contain areas of low oxygen tension. These microaerophilic environments may reduce the activity of aerosol antibiotics used in the management of chronic infection in CF. The aim of this study was to compare the MICs of levofloxacin, tobramycin, amikacin, and aztreonam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under reference and anaerobic conditions and evaluate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin under aerobic and hypoxic testing conditions. The MICs for 114 isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF patients were determined in cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth alone or supplemented with 1% potassium nitrate for anaerobic testing. Levofloxacin time-kill curves were performed under aerobic and hypoxic conditions using strains of P. aeruginosa with elevated efflux pump overexpression and/or target mutations. The MICs of nonmucoid or mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates to levofloxacin incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar. In contrast, anaerobic incubation resulted in higher MICs for tobramycin, amikacin, and aztreonam among nonmucoid or mucoid isolates, with > or =4-fold increase in MICs for over 40% of the isolates. Time-kill curves performed in aerobic and hypoxic environments with levofloxacin concentrations attained in CF sputum demonstrated similar activity, approaching a maximum bactericidal effect within 10 min of exposure. Together, these results indicate that the activity of some antibiotics against P. aeruginosa is significantly reduced under conditions relevant to the CF lung environment. In contrast, levofloxacin maintains activity against P. aeruginosa under anaerobic or hypoxic conditions similar to those found in CF microaerophilic environments.
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To investigate retrospectively the incidence of drug-induced hepatitis (DIH) caused by antituberculosis drugs including isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RFP), with and without pyrazinamide (PZA), and to evaluate risk factors for DIH in tuberculosis patients complicated with chronic hepatitis (CH).
The drug concentrations in serum and urine were assayed by HPLC method and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after intravenous infusion of a single dose of 200 mg, 300 mg and 500 mg levofloxacin to healthy volunteers. The in vitro activity MIC of levofloxacin against 823 clinical isolates were determined and compared with other antimicrobial agents. Based on the above results, the PK/PD parameters C(max)/MIC and AUC/MIC were calculated and the dosing regimens of levofloxacin were proposed for infections caused by different pathogens.
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We surveyed the group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains isolated from four teaching hospitals during 1-year period to investigate the current serotypes and antimicrobial resistance status of these strains. A total of 231 non-duplicate colonizing GBS isolates were collected from pregnant women. Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was tested by the disk diffusion method. Serotype was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Analysis of the resistance mechanisms was performed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Seven serotypes (Ia, Ib, II, III, V, VI, and VIII) were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 0.9 to 35.9%. All isolates were susceptible to the penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. The resistance of all the isolates to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin was 61.5, 51.9, and 35.5%, respectively. The erythromycin resistance was mainly associated with the genes ermB and ermB-mef(A/E) (69.8%). The most predominant phenotype was cMLSB (77.5%). Five gene panels, including gyrA, parC, parE, gyrA-parC, and gyrA-parC-parE, were detected. The most predominant genotype was gyrA-parC-parE triple mutation (69.5%). The S81L in gyrA gene, S79Y mutation in parC gene, and H225Y mutation in parE gene were discovered. The isolates with serotype III, V, and Ia were the most important clone concerning the prevalence and resistance.
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In intention-to-treat analysis H. pylori eradication was achieved in 37 of 51 (73%) subjects in EBAL and 45 of 51 (88%) subjects in EBMT groups, respectively (P = 0.046). Per-protocol eradication rates of EBAL and EMBT groups were 78% and 94%, respectively (P = 0.030). The intention-to-treat eradication rate was statistically lower for EBAL than EMBT (56% vs. 90%, P = 0.013) among those who had failed more than one course of eradication therapy. Previous levofloxacin triple therapy did not affect the efficacy of either protocol significantly.
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Conjunctival cultures were obtained on the day of surgery before povidone-iodine or antibiotic application.
After oral administration of 500 mg of levofloxacin to 12 volunteers, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities (SBAs) against five strains of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pharmacokinetic data were as follows: maximum concentration in serum, 6.36 +/- 0.57 mg/liter; area under the concentration-time curve, 43.6 +/- 6.23 mg. h/liter; elimination half-life 4.23 +/- 0.87 h. SBAs were present for 24 h against Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii. The SBAs at 1, 12, and 24 h after administration against E. coli were 1:108, 1:29, and 1:7, respectively, and those against Citrobacter freundii were 1:74, 1:25, and 1:7, respectively. The SBAs were present for 12 h against the other three organisms tested. The SBAs against Serratia marcescens were 1:28 and 1:9 at 1 and 12 h, respectively; the SBAs against Klebsiella pneumoniae were 1:25 and 1:7 at 1 and 12 h, respectively; and the SBAs against Enterobacter cloacae were 1:24 and 1:10 at 1 and 12 h, respectively.
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To estimate bacterial biofilm formation on the hydrophilic acrylic (hydrogel) intraocular lens (IOL) Meridian (HP60M, Baush & Lomb) and to investigate a preventive effect against biofilm formation of hydrogel IOLs presoaked in antibiotics.
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Four patients with MDR TB were treated with a second-line regimen comprising oral LFX 500 mg twice daily, for at least 9 months. Two isolates obtained from the patients reported here showed multi resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, one to rifampin and streptomycin and one to isoniazid and ethambutol. During therapy, no significant alteration of either liver function tests, blood tests or any other described side effect of the fluoroquinolone class was observed. The 3 patients with pulmonary MDR TB showed radiologic and clinical improvement.
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H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae were isolated in 30 laboratories and susceptibility determined locally by the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method. At a central laboratory, isolates were re-identified, tested for beta-lactamase production (H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis only) and MICs determined using the BSAC agar dilution method.
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The efficacy of the two groups was 94.0% (110/117 eyes) in gatifloxacin group and 93.8% (106/113 eyes) in levofloxacin group with no significant difference (χ(2) = 0.052, P = 0.8201). There was also no difference in the bacteria clearance between the two groups [gatifloxacin versus levofloxacin, 94.1% (80/85 eyes) versus 92.5% (74/80 eyes), P = 0.3470]. The decrease of combination score of signs and symptoms at the (4 ± 1) delivery day was 4.436 ± 2.310 in the gatifloxacin group and 3.814 ± 1.962 in the levofloxacin group, the difference of which was significant (F = 7.280, P = 0.0075). This trend was also proved at the (7 ± 1) delivery day (gatifloxacin versus levofloxacin, 7.487 ± 2.821 versus 6.912 ± 2.911, F = 4.060, P = 0.0452). The visual acuity and the tolerance after local application of the eye drops between the two groups had no difference (the visual acuity F = 1.04, P = 0.3080; the tolerance after local admission χ(2) = 0.1372, P = 0.7111). According to the result of the germ culture, the major pathogenic bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria (totally 20 kinds of Gram-positive bacteria and 8 kinds of Gram-negative bacteria). The MIC and drug resistance of gatifloxacin to the Gram-positive bacteria was lower than that of the levofloxacin (Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Staphylococcus Aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α-hemolytic Streptococcus).
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In this study, 112 Escherichia coli and 55 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype were collected from 2007 to 2009. All isolates simultaneously exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (or ceftazidime), ciprofloxacin (or levofloxacin) and amikacin. Plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases, including armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE and npmA, were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Common β-lactamase genes, including bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(PER), bla(VEB), bla(GES) and bla(OXA), as well as plasmid-mediated bla(AmpC) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr, were also screened. The transferable capacity of resistance plasmids was established by conjugation testing. The genetic relatedness of isolates was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Only armA and rmtB genes were detected in this study. Data showed that 93.8% of MDR E. coli and 94.5% of MDR K. pneumoniae carried at least one of armA or rmtB. The armA and rmtB genes were present in 11.6% and 82.1% of MDR E. coli, respectively. In parallel, 58.2% and 40.0% of MDR K. pneumoniae were armA- and rmtB-positive, respectively. Furthermore, the qepA gene was present in 66.3% of rmtB-carrying MDR E. coli, but it was rarely detected in MDR K. pneumoniae. Approximately 71.9% of armA-positive MDR K. pneumoniae simultaneously co-carried qnrB and bla(DHA). Moreover, 78.1% and 63.6%, respectively, of armA-positive and rmtB-positive MDR K. pneumoniae strains harboured qnr alleles and 53.1% and 59.1% harboured aac(6')-Ib-cr. In addition, MDR E. coli strains exhibited a low prevalence of qnr alleles and aac(6')-Ib-cr. PFGE analysis revealed divergent genetic relatedness, suggesting horizontal dissemination of armA and rmtB along with common β-lactamases and PMQR determinants amongst clinical MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates.