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Tavanic (Levaquin)
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Tavanic

Tavanic is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as quinolone antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.

Other names for this medication:
Cravit, Elequine, Farlev, Glevo, Leflox, Levaquin, Levobact, Levocin, Levoday, Levoflox, Levofloxacin, Levofloxacina, Levofloxacino, Levomac, Levomax, Levox, Levoxa, Levoxacin, Levoxin, Levozine, Loxof, Novacilina, Proxime, Recamicina, Truxa, Ultraquin, Uniflox

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Also known as:  Levaquin.

Description

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Tavanic and other antibacterial drugs, Tavanic should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Tavanic Tablets/Injection and Oral Solution are indicated for the treatment of adults (≥18 years of age) with mild, moderate, and severe infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed in this section. Tavanic Injection is indicated when intravenous administration offers a route of administration advantageous to the patient (e.g., patient cannot tolerate an oral dosage form).

Dosage

Rapid or bolus intravenous infusion of Tavanic has been associated with hypotension and must be avoided. Tavanic Injection should be infused intravenously slowly over a period of not less than 60 or 90 minutes, depending on the dosage. Tavanic Injection should be administered only by intravenous infusion. It is not for intramuscular, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration.

Overdose

Overdose of the drug should be strictly avoided and if anyone has accidentally taken the overdose of the drug, then the victim should be provided with emergency medical help. Overdose victim can also consult to their local poison helpline. Some of the overdose symptoms include loss of coordination, drooping eyelids, weakness, decreased activity, trouble breathing, sweating, tremors, or seizure.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep in a tightly closed container. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Tavanic are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroids, and in patients with kidney, heart and lung transplants. Discontinue if pain or inflammation in a tendon occurs.

Anaphylactic reactions and allergic skin reactions, serious, occasionally fatal, may occur after first dose.

Hematologic (including agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia), and renal toxicities may occur after multiple doses.

Hepatotoxicity: Severe, and sometimes fatal, hepatoxicity has been reported. Discontinue immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

Central nervous system effects, including convulsions, anxiety, confusion, depression, and insomnia may occur after the first dose. Use with caution in patients with known or suspected disorders that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold.

Clostridium difficile-associated colitis: evaluate if diarrhea occurs.

Peripheral neuropathy: discontinue if symptoms occur in order to prevent irreversibility.

Prolongation of the QT interval and isolated cases of torsade de pointes have been reported. Avoid use in patients with known prolongation, those with hypokalemia, and with other drugs that prolong the QT interval.

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Studies have demonstrated that thickened mucous layers in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients contain areas of low oxygen tension. These microaerophilic environments may reduce the activity of aerosol antibiotics used in the management of chronic infection in CF. The aim of this study was to compare the MICs of levofloxacin, tobramycin, amikacin, and aztreonam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under reference and anaerobic conditions and evaluate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin under aerobic and hypoxic testing conditions. The MICs for 114 isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF patients were determined in cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth alone or supplemented with 1% potassium nitrate for anaerobic testing. Levofloxacin time-kill curves were performed under aerobic and hypoxic conditions using strains of P. aeruginosa with elevated efflux pump overexpression and/or target mutations. The MICs of nonmucoid or mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates to levofloxacin incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar. In contrast, anaerobic incubation resulted in higher MICs for tobramycin, amikacin, and aztreonam among nonmucoid or mucoid isolates, with > or =4-fold increase in MICs for over 40% of the isolates. Time-kill curves performed in aerobic and hypoxic environments with levofloxacin concentrations attained in CF sputum demonstrated similar activity, approaching a maximum bactericidal effect within 10 min of exposure. Together, these results indicate that the activity of some antibiotics against P. aeruginosa is significantly reduced under conditions relevant to the CF lung environment. In contrast, levofloxacin maintains activity against P. aeruginosa under anaerobic or hypoxic conditions similar to those found in CF microaerophilic environments.

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To investigate retrospectively the incidence of drug-induced hepatitis (DIH) caused by antituberculosis drugs including isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RFP), with and without pyrazinamide (PZA), and to evaluate risk factors for DIH in tuberculosis patients complicated with chronic hepatitis (CH).

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The drug concentrations in serum and urine were assayed by HPLC method and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after intravenous infusion of a single dose of 200 mg, 300 mg and 500 mg levofloxacin to healthy volunteers. The in vitro activity MIC of levofloxacin against 823 clinical isolates were determined and compared with other antimicrobial agents. Based on the above results, the PK/PD parameters C(max)/MIC and AUC/MIC were calculated and the dosing regimens of levofloxacin were proposed for infections caused by different pathogens.

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We surveyed the group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains isolated from four teaching hospitals during 1-year period to investigate the current serotypes and antimicrobial resistance status of these strains. A total of 231 non-duplicate colonizing GBS isolates were collected from pregnant women. Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was tested by the disk diffusion method. Serotype was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Analysis of the resistance mechanisms was performed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Seven serotypes (Ia, Ib, II, III, V, VI, and VIII) were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 0.9 to 35.9%. All isolates were susceptible to the penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. The resistance of all the isolates to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin was 61.5, 51.9, and 35.5%, respectively. The erythromycin resistance was mainly associated with the genes ermB and ermB-mef(A/E) (69.8%). The most predominant phenotype was cMLSB (77.5%). Five gene panels, including gyrA, parC, parE, gyrA-parC, and gyrA-parC-parE, were detected. The most predominant genotype was gyrA-parC-parE triple mutation (69.5%). The S81L in gyrA gene, S79Y mutation in parC gene, and H225Y mutation in parE gene were discovered. The isolates with serotype III, V, and Ia were the most important clone concerning the prevalence and resistance.

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In intention-to-treat analysis H. pylori eradication was achieved in 37 of 51 (73%) subjects in EBAL and 45 of 51 (88%) subjects in EBMT groups, respectively (P = 0.046). Per-protocol eradication rates of EBAL and EMBT groups were 78% and 94%, respectively (P = 0.030). The intention-to-treat eradication rate was statistically lower for EBAL than EMBT (56% vs. 90%, P = 0.013) among those who had failed more than one course of eradication therapy. Previous levofloxacin triple therapy did not affect the efficacy of either protocol significantly.

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Conjunctival cultures were obtained on the day of surgery before povidone-iodine or antibiotic application.

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After oral administration of 500 mg of levofloxacin to 12 volunteers, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities (SBAs) against five strains of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pharmacokinetic data were as follows: maximum concentration in serum, 6.36 +/- 0.57 mg/liter; area under the concentration-time curve, 43.6 +/- 6.23 mg. h/liter; elimination half-life 4.23 +/- 0.87 h. SBAs were present for 24 h against Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii. The SBAs at 1, 12, and 24 h after administration against E. coli were 1:108, 1:29, and 1:7, respectively, and those against Citrobacter freundii were 1:74, 1:25, and 1:7, respectively. The SBAs were present for 12 h against the other three organisms tested. The SBAs against Serratia marcescens were 1:28 and 1:9 at 1 and 12 h, respectively; the SBAs against Klebsiella pneumoniae were 1:25 and 1:7 at 1 and 12 h, respectively; and the SBAs against Enterobacter cloacae were 1:24 and 1:10 at 1 and 12 h, respectively.

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To estimate bacterial biofilm formation on the hydrophilic acrylic (hydrogel) intraocular lens (IOL) Meridian (HP60M, Baush & Lomb) and to investigate a preventive effect against biofilm formation of hydrogel IOLs presoaked in antibiotics.

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Four patients with MDR TB were treated with a second-line regimen comprising oral LFX 500 mg twice daily, for at least 9 months. Two isolates obtained from the patients reported here showed multi resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, one to rifampin and streptomycin and one to isoniazid and ethambutol. During therapy, no significant alteration of either liver function tests, blood tests or any other described side effect of the fluoroquinolone class was observed. The 3 patients with pulmonary MDR TB showed radiologic and clinical improvement.

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H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae were isolated in 30 laboratories and susceptibility determined locally by the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method. At a central laboratory, isolates were re-identified, tested for beta-lactamase production (H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis only) and MICs determined using the BSAC agar dilution method.

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The efficacy of the two groups was 94.0% (110/117 eyes) in gatifloxacin group and 93.8% (106/113 eyes) in levofloxacin group with no significant difference (χ(2) = 0.052, P = 0.8201). There was also no difference in the bacteria clearance between the two groups [gatifloxacin versus levofloxacin, 94.1% (80/85 eyes) versus 92.5% (74/80 eyes), P = 0.3470]. The decrease of combination score of signs and symptoms at the (4 ± 1) delivery day was 4.436 ± 2.310 in the gatifloxacin group and 3.814 ± 1.962 in the levofloxacin group, the difference of which was significant (F = 7.280, P = 0.0075). This trend was also proved at the (7 ± 1) delivery day (gatifloxacin versus levofloxacin, 7.487 ± 2.821 versus 6.912 ± 2.911, F = 4.060, P = 0.0452). The visual acuity and the tolerance after local application of the eye drops between the two groups had no difference (the visual acuity F = 1.04, P = 0.3080; the tolerance after local admission χ(2) = 0.1372, P = 0.7111). According to the result of the germ culture, the major pathogenic bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria (totally 20 kinds of Gram-positive bacteria and 8 kinds of Gram-negative bacteria). The MIC and drug resistance of gatifloxacin to the Gram-positive bacteria was lower than that of the levofloxacin (Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Staphylococcus Aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α-hemolytic Streptococcus).

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In this study, 112 Escherichia coli and 55 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype were collected from 2007 to 2009. All isolates simultaneously exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (or ceftazidime), ciprofloxacin (or levofloxacin) and amikacin. Plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methylases, including armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE and npmA, were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Common β-lactamase genes, including bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(PER), bla(VEB), bla(GES) and bla(OXA), as well as plasmid-mediated bla(AmpC) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr, were also screened. The transferable capacity of resistance plasmids was established by conjugation testing. The genetic relatedness of isolates was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Only armA and rmtB genes were detected in this study. Data showed that 93.8% of MDR E. coli and 94.5% of MDR K. pneumoniae carried at least one of armA or rmtB. The armA and rmtB genes were present in 11.6% and 82.1% of MDR E. coli, respectively. In parallel, 58.2% and 40.0% of MDR K. pneumoniae were armA- and rmtB-positive, respectively. Furthermore, the qepA gene was present in 66.3% of rmtB-carrying MDR E. coli, but it was rarely detected in MDR K. pneumoniae. Approximately 71.9% of armA-positive MDR K. pneumoniae simultaneously co-carried qnrB and bla(DHA). Moreover, 78.1% and 63.6%, respectively, of armA-positive and rmtB-positive MDR K. pneumoniae strains harboured qnr alleles and 53.1% and 59.1% harboured aac(6')-Ib-cr. In addition, MDR E. coli strains exhibited a low prevalence of qnr alleles and aac(6')-Ib-cr. PFGE analysis revealed divergent genetic relatedness, suggesting horizontal dissemination of armA and rmtB along with common β-lactamases and PMQR determinants amongst clinical MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates.

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tavanic tab 2016-04-13

Fifty-five Bactoclav 625 Dosage patients with persistent Helicobacter pylori infection after first-line therapy and second-line therapy were studied in a single referral academic center. We compared the eradication rates by the treatment duration of third-line therapy.

tavanic iv dosage 2017-09-15

Chronic respiratory infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main driver of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The development of resistance to all available antibiotics is a frequent outcome of these infections. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of the new cephalosporin CXA-101 (FR264205) against a collection of 100 isolates obtained from 50 CF patients from two Spanish hospitals. The collection included the first (early) and the last (late) available isolate from each patient (average interval 68 ± 39 months). The MIC50 and MIC90 of CXA-101 were 0.5 and 2 mg/L and the geometric mean MIC was 0.7 mg/L; the MICs Clinacin Gel Review for 95% of the isolates were ≤8 mg/L (tentative breakpoint). Only meropenem yielded comparable results, although the MIC90 of this antibiotic was significantly higher (8 mg/L). CXA-101 showed conserved activity against a high proportion of isolates resistant to each of the antibiotics tested (ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, levofloxacin and tobramycin), with MIC50 values of 1-2 mg/L. Moreover, CXA-101 retained good activity against multidrug-resistant strains, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 2 and 16 mg/L. CXA-101 was also active against late CF isolates (the MIC for 96% was ≤8 mg/L); it was the only antibiotic tested to which a similar percentage of early and late isolates was susceptible. These results show that, despite a slight increase in MICs, major cross-resistance to CXA-101 did not develop during treatment of CF patients with the currently available antipseudomonal agents. Therefore, CXA-101 is envisaged as a valuable alternative for the treatment of chronic respiratory infection caused by P. aeruginosa in CF patients.

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Transport of [14C]PAH or [14C Vantin Generic ]levofloxacin was measured using OK cell monolayers grown on microporous membrane filters.

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Hospital Di Stefano, Catania Clindahexal 450 Mg Anwendung , Italy.

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The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the national "STOP TB" program in central Taiwan during 2003-2007 by examining trends in the combined drug resistance to first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Using 4,819 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from two mycobacteriology referral laboratories, the resistance to drugs was measured and analyzed along with the Rulide Dosage treatment outcomes in notified TB patients. The proportion of isolates showing total resistance and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates were 17.7% and 3.67%, respectively. More number of MDR-TB isolates showed high-level resistance to isoniazid (84.18%) and streptomycin (SM) (30.51%); low-level resistance to ethambutol (EMB) (61.58%), SM (41.81%), and pyrazinamide (66.1%); and resistance to ofloxacin (30.4%). However, fewer isolates showed high-level resistance to EMB (19.77%), levofloxacin (17.9%), moxifloxacin (19.6%), kanamycin (8.9%), amikacin (8.9%), and capreomycin (8.9%). Of these MDR-TB isolates, 7.1% were extensively drug-resistant. Trends in combined drug resistance to all the first-line anti-TB drugs and the incidence of MDR-TB were stable during the 2 years (2003-2004) before the implementation of the national "STOP TB" program. After the "STOP TB" program, there were significant declines in the incidence of MDR-TB during 2005-2007 in central Taiwan as well as improved TB-treatment outcomes. Thus, the national "STOP TB" program had a significant positive impact on TB control in central Taiwan.

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Thirty nine patients (12.5%) complied with the diagnostic criteria of acute C. pneumoniae infection ( Penamox Amoxicilina 875 Mg a four-fold rise in the titer of IgG antibody, or a single IgG titer > or = 1:512, or a single IgM titer > or = 1:16). All patients were diagnosed as having pneumonia. Co-infection with other respiratory tract pathogens was found in four patients.

tavanic levofloxacin antibiotic 2017-07-06

Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium avium complex is often characterized by a lack of correlation between in vitro results and clinical response. The reason for this discrepancy might lie in the difference between in vitro susceptibility testing conditions and the actual environment experienced by mycobacteria in the host. The availability of iron is one such difference, which is limited in host macrophages upon infection, but abundant in susceptibility testing media. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to determine whether iron limitation affects the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Megamox 375 Mg Dosage M. avium subspecies hominissuis.

tavanic 750 mg tb 2017-11-27

To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerance Septrin Tablets Medicine of different quinolones in women with uncomplicated acute cystitis.

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To explore the microbiological etiology of prosthetic knee infections during two-staged revision and analyze antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria so as to provide clinical What Is Soltrim Medication recommendations for empiric antibiotic therapy.

tavanic 250 mg levofloxacin 2017-12-17

Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of nontuberculous mycobacteria(NTM) in Beijing. Methods: Using PCR-fluorescence probe method we identified 1 552 mycobacterial isolates in 2009 and 1 553 mycobacterial isolates in 2013, which were stored by Beijing Research Institute for Tuberculosis Control.All identified NTM strains were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and drug sensitivity testing was performed by using 1% ratio method.SPSS 13.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The isolation rate for NTM in 2009 and 2013 was 3.8%(59/1 552), and 4.6%(71/1 553) respectively. A total of 130 NTM strains were identified to 13 species by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including M. intracellulare strains 39.2%(51/130), M. kansasii strains 37.7%(49/130), M. avium strains 6.9%(9/130), M. abscessus strains 5.4%(7/130), M. fortuitum strains 3.0%(4/130), M. gordonae strains 1.5%(2/130), M. xenopi strains 1.5%(2/130), M. scrofulaceum, M. Phlei, M. smegmatis, Metrogel Gel Reviews M. vaccae, M. neoaurum, M. kumamotonense 1 strain each. For the patients infected with NTM, 87 were male and 43 were female, with an average age of 55 years. The results of drug sensitivity test from 97 strains of NTM showed that isoniazid and p-aminosalicylic acid showed the highest drug resistant rate of 98%(95/97), followed by streptomycin 94.8%(92/97), capreomycin 81.4%(79/97), amikacin 69.1%(67/97), levofloxacin 56.7%(55/97), rifampicin 54.6%(53/97), prothionamide 51.5%(50/97), and ethambutol 50.5%(49/97). Conclusions:Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium kansasii were the main strains isolated from patients infected with NTM in Beijing. Patients infected with NTM were mostly males. NTM showed high resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs.