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The mean weight of participants in the intervention group increased from 77.7 kg at baseline to 78.4 kg at 6 months (unadjusted increase of 0.7 kg) and from 76.8 to 77.2 kg (0.5 kg) in the placebo group. The adjusted difference between randomised groups was statistically significant at 0.6 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31, 0.88]. Significantly, more participants gained ≥3 kg in the intervention group (138/720, 19%) compared with the placebo group (92/706, 13%) [odds ratio (OR) 1.57 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.12)]. The mean BMI increased from 27.5 to 27.8 kg/m(2) at 6 months in the intervention group compared with the increase from 27.0 to 27.2 kg/m(2) in the placebo group [adjusted difference between groups was statistically significant at 0.2 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.11, 0.31)]. Dyspepsia was less frequently reported by intervention group participants (168/736, 23%, placebo group 209/711, 29%), OR 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93).
We report a series of new 9-oxime ether non-ketolides, including 3-hydroxyl, 3-O-acyl and 3-O-alkyl clarithromycin derivatives, and thiophene-containing ketolides 1b-1d. Unlike previously reported ketolide 1a, none of them is comparable to telithromycin. A molecular modeling study was performed to gain insight into the binding mode of alkylides 17-20 with bacterial rRNA and to rationalize the great disparity of their SAR. The 3-O-sidechains of 19 and 20 point to the so-called hydrophilic side of the macrolide ring, as seen in clarithromycin. In contrast, the 3-O-sidechains of 17 and 18 bend to the backside, the so-called hydrophobic side of the macrolide ring. The results clearly indicated the alkylides with improved antibacterial activity might possess a novel binding mode, which is different from clarithromycin and the alkylides with poor activity.
Combination antimicrobial therapy against Legionella species has not been well studied. Several quinolones have activity against Legionella strains, which prompted this in vitro search for a synergistic combination with the macrolides. By a checkerboard assay, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, each in combination with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, were tested for synergy against 46 isolates of Legionella. The agar dilution method was employed using buffered charcoal-yeast extract media. A final inoculum of 10(4) CFU per spot was prepared from 24-h growth of each isolate. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Synergy, partial synergy, additive effect, or indifference was observed for all combinations of antibiotics tested. There was no antagonism observed. Synergy occurred to a significantly greater extent for the clarithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.0001) and azithromycin-levofloxacin (P = 0.003) combinations versus erythromycin-levofloxacin. The azithromycin-ciprofloxacin combination demonstrated significantly greater synergy than did either erythromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.003) or clarithromycin-ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001). The newer macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin may be more active in combination with a fluoroquinolone than is erythromycin.
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Data of 1240 H. pylori positive patients treated with triple therapy or sequential therapy from January 2013 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had undertaken previous H. pylori eradication therapy or gastric surgery were excluded.
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Fourteen- and 15-member macrolide antibiotics are under investigation as potential therapeutic agents for cystic fibrosis (CF). The nonantibiotic mechanisms of action of these compounds in CF are not understood. We used nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements to test the effect of macrolides on airway epithelial ion (chloride, sodium) transport of CF mice and humans. We tested clarithromycin and azithromycin in mice, and clarithromycin in patients with CF. Baseline and post-treatment NPD was measured in two strains (C57Bl6 and BalbC) of CF transmembrane regulator "knockout" and littermate control mice, and in DeltaF508/DeltaF508 mice. In addition, NPD was measured in 18 human subjects with CF (17 DeltaF-508/DeltaF-508 and 1 DeltaF-508/other) who were undergoing a 12-month, randomized, double-blind crossover study of the effects of clarithromycin on pulmonary outcome in CF. Neither clarithromycin nor azithromycin affected ion transport characteristics of normal or CF nasal epithelium in either mouse or humans. We conclude that the apparent beneficial effects of macrolides on pulmonary outcome in CF are not mediated by their modulation of ion transport.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a pathological follicular disease, impacts patients' lives profoundly. HS most commonly involves cutaneous intertriginous areas, such as the axilla, inner thighs, groin and buttocks, and pendulous breasts, but can appear on any follicular skin. Protean, HS manifests with variations of abscesses, folliculitis, pyogenic granulomas, scars (oval honeycombed), comedones, tracts, fistulas, and keloids. The pathophysiology might involve both defects of the innate follicular immunity and overreaction to coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Treatment depends on the morphology, extent, severity, and duration. Topical clindamycin and dapsone are often adequate for treating mild HS. For Stage 1 and 2 HS, first line treatment combines rifampin with either oral clindamycin or minocycline. Other HS treatments include: fluoroquinolones with metronidazole and rifampin, oral dapsone, zinc, acitretin, hormone blockers (oral contraceptive pills, spironolactone, finasteride, and dutasteride), and oral prednisone. For severe HS, cyclosporine, adalimumab, or infliximab (used at double psoriatic doses) and intravenous carbapenems or cephalosporins are often required. Isotretinoin, etanercept, isoniazid, lymecycline, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, metformin, colchicine, clarithromycin, IVIG, and thalidomide are less favored treatments. The role of botulinum toxin is uncertain. The most important life style modification is weight loss. De-roofing fluctuant nodules and injection of intralesional corticosteroids ameliorates the disease and perhaps, if done at regular intervals, improves HS more permanently. Surgical excision and CO2 laser ablation are more definitive treatments. The 1064 nm laser for hair removal aids in the treatment of HS. This article centers on medical therapies and will only passingly mention surgical and laser treatments. This article summarizes my treatment experience with over 350 HS patients.
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Several studies have reported that the application of ecabet sodium during the eradication of Helicobacter pylori can improve the eradication rate and reduce therapy-associated side effects. However, the efficacy and safety of this therapy are controversial.
209 consecutive naive H. pylori-positive patients without susceptibility testing were empirically treated with 10-day concomitant therapy (proton pump inhibitors (PPI), amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg; all drugs b.i.d.). Simultaneously, 89 patients with positive H. pylori culture were randomized to receive triple versus concomitant therapy for clarithromycin-susceptible H. pylori, and sequential versus concomitant therapy for clarithromycin-resistant strains. Eradication was confirmed with ¹³C-urea breath test or histology 8 weeks after completion of treatment.
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The kinetic and dynamic interactions of 5 mg zolpidem and 50 mg trazodone with 500 mg clarithromycin (4 doses given over 32 h) were investigated in a 5-way double crossover study with 10 healthy volunteers. The five treatment conditions were: placebo + placebo; zolpidem + placebo; zolpidem + clarithromycin; trazodone + placebo; and trazodone + clarithromycin. Coadministration of clarithromycin increased trazodone area under the curve, prolonged elimination half-life, increased peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and reduced oral clearance. In contrast, clarithromycin had no significant effect on any kinetic parameter for zolpidem. Clarithromycin did not potentiate sedation caused by zolpidem. However, clarithromycin coadministered with trazodone significantly increased self- and observer-rated sedation and ratings of feeling "spacey." Thus, short-term clarithromycin coadministration significantly impairs trazodone clearance, elevates plasma concentrations, and enhances sedative effects. However, clarithromycin has no significant kinetic or dynamic interaction with zolpidem.