suprax missed dose
To develop a real-time PCR detection procedure for Escherichia coli O111, O26 and O157 from minced meat.
suprax dose for sinusitis
Among the 87 isolates obtained, only one isolate was revealed to produce beta lactamase. MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin were over 8 microg/ml, over 8 microg/ml, 4 microg/ml, and 2 microg/ml, respectively. The proportion of isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones was over 60% (ciprofloxacin, 70.1%; levofloxacin, 65.5%; gatifloxacin, 70.1%). Chromosomally mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance was identified in 12.6% and 33.3% of the isolates. MIC90 values for cefixime and ceftriaxone and were 0.5 microg/ml and 0.0063 microg/ml. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and 90.8% of them were sensitive to cefixime. MIC90 for spectinomycin was 32 microg/ml and all isolates were sensitive to it. Fluoroquinolone resistance correlated significantly with MICs for penicillin G but not tetracycline.
suprax 200 mg antibiotikum
To study the influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins, 430 consecutive penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007 isolates received in the Spanish Reference Pneumococcal Laboratory were tested. For comparative purposes, 625 penicillin-susceptible 2007 isolates were also tested. Susceptibility was determined by agar dilution using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood. Penicillin-susceptible strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 99.8% to cefpodoxime and 99.5% to cefdinir, and were inhibited by 0.12 microg/ml of cefditoren and 4 microg/ml of cefixime. Penicillin-intermediate strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, with <50% susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of cefditoren were 0.25 microg/ml and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, whereas cefixime exhibited only marginal activity (MIC(90)=16 microg/ml). Penicillin-resistant strains were resistant to cefdinir and cefpodoxime, with 74.8% and 94.1% susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Among amoxicillin non-susceptible strains, susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime was <10%, and susceptibility to cefotaxime decreased from 87.9% in the intermediate category to 63.0% in the resistant group. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime. In conclusion, the activity of cefixime, cefdinir and cefpodoxime was highly affected by penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility, while parenteral third-generation cephalosporins exhibited higher intrinsic activity (MIC(90)=1 microg/ml for penicillin-resistant and 2 microg/ml for amoxicillin-resistant strains). Cefditoren exhibited one-dilution lower MIC(90) values for these strains, even against those of the most troublesome serotypes.
suprax pediatric dosage
At baseline values the model favored ceftriaxone ($45 per patient) or cefixime ($59 per patient). However, over the range of efficacy of both drugs, two-way sensitivity analysis revealed no consistent cost advantage for either drug. The model was also insensitive to the economic effects associated with the risk of accidental needlestick during IM injection.
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A newly developed cephalosporin, cefixime (CFIX), was evaluated clinically in 35 pediatric patients. A pharmacokinetic study was also performed with 11 patients. CFIX was administered as granules. The pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 11 patients, each of 6 patients was given CFIX at a dose of 3 mg/kg and each of the remaining patients was given CFIX at 6 mg/kg. Serum concentrations of CFIX were measured at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours after dosing. Urinary concentrations of CFIX were measured for periods of 0-6 and 6-12 hours after dosing. CFIX was assayed by the disk method using E. coli ATCC 39188 as the test organism. The clinical evaluation was conducted in 35 children including 5 patients of acute tonsillitis, 10 of acute lacunar tonsillitis, 1 of purulent lymphadenitis, 1 of scarlet fever, 8 of acute bronchitis, 5 of pneumonia, 3 of urinary tract infections and 1 of paratyphoid B. One additional patient was included only in the evaluation of safety since he was suffering from Mycoplasma pneumonia. the patients were from 4 months to 8 years 2 months old and 11 of them were inpatients. Daily doses were from 6.0 to 13.5 mg/kg. After CFIX administration in doses of 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, peak serum concentrations were 1.75 and 3.36 micrograms/ml, half-lives were 2.65 and 2.86 hours and urinary excretions rates up to 12 hours after dosing were 16.1 and 12.4%, respectively. Serum concentrations were dose dependent and the half-life was fairly long compared with other known oral cephalosporins. Clinical efficacies of CFIX in 34 patients were "excellent" in 25 children, "good" in 8 and "poor" in 1 with effectiveness rate of 97.1%. Twenty-two strains of causative organisms, including 6 strains of S. aureus, 3 of S. pyogenes, 2 of S. pneumoniae, 3 of E. coli, 5 of H. influenzae, 2 of H. parainfluenzae and 1 of S. paratyphi B, were isolated. After treatment all strains except 2 strains of S. aureus (one was unknown and the other was decreased), 1 strain of S. pneumoniae (unknown) and 1 strain of H. influenzae (unknown) were successfully eradicated but S. paratyphi B was proved again in feces 9 days after treatment. No adverse reaction was observed. Among 18 children who went through laboratory test, however, an elevation of eosinophile and elevations of GOT and GPT were observed in 2 children and 1 child, respectively.
suprax dose for uti
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infection in infants. The most severe form of UTI is acute pyelonephritis, which results in significant acute morbidity and may cause permanent renal damage. Published guidelines recommend treatment of acute pyelonephritis initially with intravenous (IV) therapy followed by oral therapy for 7-14 days though there is no consensus on the duration of either IV or oral therapy.
New antimicrobials are essential to prevent gonorrhoea becoming an untreatable infection. Herein, the in vitro activities of the novel bicyclolides modithromycin (EDP-420, EP-013420, S-013420) and EDP-322 against Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains were investigated and compared with antimicrobials currently or previously recommended for treatment of gonorrhoea.
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Literature selected from peer reviewed journals listed in MEDLINE(R)/PubMed(R) from 1943 to 2009 and from resources cited in those articles was reviewed comprehensively.
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The frequencies of isolation and susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents were investigated on 704 bacterial strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during the period of June 1995 to May 1996. Of the above bacterial isolates, Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 29.8% and a majority of them were Enterococcus faecalis. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 70.2% and most of them were Escherichia coli. Susceptibilities of several isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as followed; 1. Enterococcus faecalis Ampicillin (ABPC) and imipenem (IPM) showed the highest activities against E. faecalis isolated from patients with UTIs. The MIC90S of them were 1 microgram/ml. Vancomycin (VCM) and piperacillin (PIPC) were also active with the MIC90S of 2 micrograms/ml and 4 micrograms/ml, respectively. The others had low activities with the MIC90S of 16 micrograms/ml or above. 2. Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA VCM showed the highest activities against S. aureus isolated from patients with UTIs. Its MIC90 was 1 microgram/ml against both S. aureus and MRSA. Arbekacin (ABK) was also active with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml. The other except minocycline (MINO) had very low activities with the MIC90S of 64 micrograms/ml or above. 3. Staphylococcus epidermidis ABK and MINO showed the strongest activities against S. epidermidis isolated from patients with UTIs. The MIC90S of them were 0.25 microgram/ml. VCM was also active with the MIC90 of 1 microgram/ml. The MIC90S of cephems ranged from 2 micrograms/ml to 16 micrograms/ml in 1994, but they ranged from 8 micrograms/ml to 128 micrograms/ml in 1995. These results indicated that some resistances existed among S. epidermidis to cephems. 4. Streptococcus agalactiae All drugs except gentamicin (GM) were active against S. agalactiae. ABPC, cefmenoxime (CMX), IPM, erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM) and clarithromycin (CAM) showed the highest activities. The MICs for all strains were lower than 0.125 microgram/ml. The MIC90S of the others were 2 micrograms/ml or below. 5. Citrobacter freundii IPM showed the highest activity against C. freundii isolated from patients UTIs. Its MIC90 was 1 microgram/ml. GM was also active with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml. Cefpirome (CPR), cefozopran (CZOP) and amikacin (AMK) were also active with the MIC90S of 4 micrograms/ml. Penicillins and cephems except CMX, CPR and CZOP showed low activities with MIC90S of 256 micrograms/ml or above. 6. Enterobacter cloacae IPM showed the highest activity against E. cloacae. The MICs for all strains were equal to or lower than 1 microgram/ml. MINO and tosufloxacin (TFLX) were also active with the MIC90S of 8 micrograms/ml. Penicillins and cephems except CPR and CZOP showed lower activities with the MIC90S of 256 micrograms/ml or above. 7. Escherichia coli. Most of the antimicrobial agents were active against E. coli. Particularly CPR, CZOP and IPM showed the highest activities against E. coli. The MICs for all strains were equal to or lower than 0.5 microgram/ml. CMX and TFLX were also active with the MIC90S of 0.125 microgram/ml or below. Penicillins were slightly active with MIC90S of 128 micrograms/ml or above. 8. Klebsiella pneumoniae K. pneumoniae was susceptible to all drugs except penicillins, with MIC90S of 2 micrograms/ml or below. Carumonam (CRMN) had the strongest activity against K. pneumoniae, the MICs for all strains were equal to or lower than 0.125 microgram/ml. Comparing with the result of 1994, the sensitivities of K. pneumoniae against all drugs had obviously changed into a better state. For example, the MIC90S of cephems ranged from 0.25 microgram/ml to 16 micrograms/ml in 1994, but they were all lower than 2 micrograms/ml in 1995. 9. Proteus mirabilis P. mirabilis was susceptible to a majority of drugs. CMX, ceftazidime (CAZ), cefixime (CFIX), and CRMN showed the highest activities against P. mirabilis isolated from patients with UTIs. MICs of CRMN for all
suprax 400 mg
Modifications of cefixime kinetics due to severe impairment of liver function were determined in 9 cirrhotic patients. Cefixime was administered as a single dose of 200 mg and levels were measured by HPLC. Maximum serum concentrations and area-under-the-curves of serum concentrations were not modified. The time for maximum serum concentration was delayed and the cefixime half-life in serum was prolonged, as a reflect of increased volume of distribution resulting from ascites and hypoalbuminemia. Renal clearance increased in these patients, possibly because of reduced extra-renal clearance. No metabolite was detected in serum or urine. Modifications of cefixime kinetics resulting from impaired hepatic function were modest and did not require specific dosage adjustment.