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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can present as bacteremia, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, soft tissue and wound infections, bone and joint infections, meningitis, and endocarditis especially in immunosuppressed patients and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence and impact of S. maltophilia in young children with heart disease are poorly defined. A single center retrospective observational study was conducted in infants <180 days of age with positive S. maltophilia cultures over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence for S. maltophilia infection was 0.8 % (n = 32/3656). Among 32 identified infants, there were 47 episodes of S. maltophilia infection 66 % of infants had prior exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. 97 % of positive isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 91 % to levofloxacin as well as ticarcillin/clavulanate. Ventilator-free days and absolute lymphocyte count prior to acquiring infection were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors. 100 % of survivors had clearance of positive cultures compared to 50 % in non-survivors (p < 0.05). The crude all-cause mortality rate was 37.5 %. All non-survivors had increased length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation and had delayed clearance of infection and required longer duration of treatment.
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This report describes the results of six antimicrobial regimens used for the treatment of brucellosis in an open, randomized study performed over two periods (1980-1983 and 1984-1987). In the first period, rifampicin and doxycycline were used for 4 weeks, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 6 months, and doxycycline for 6 weeks. During the second period, we used streptomycin for 2 or 3 weeks together with doxycycline for 6 weeks and rifampicin with doxycycline for 6 weeks. Comparison of the results showed the following: (1) no statistically significant findings were revealed when the different regimens were compared and (2) the regimens containing streptomycin yielded statistically more favorable results than those consisting of rifampicin and monotherapy when the patients treated with rifampicin were compared with those taking streptomycin and those receiving single-agent therapy. No significant differences were observed between monotherapeutic regimens and those including rifampicin.
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To assess the results of diagnosing and treating Pneumocystis pneumonia (PP) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) over 15 years.
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Fixed drug eruption (FDE) causes cosmetic embarrassment in Nigerian patients, particularly when the characteristic hyperpigmented patches affect the face and lips. Drugs that have been implicated in the etiology of FDE, and the sites of lesions, may vary from country to country. Antimalarials, such as Fansidar, Fancimef, Maloxine, Amalar, and Metakelfin, were the most common offending agents, accounting for 38% of FDEs, followed by trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) (28%), dipyrones (10%), Butazolidin (6%), thiacetazone (6%), metronidazole (4%), paracetamol (3%), and naproxen (3%). Lesions induced by the combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (in antimalarials) mainly involved the face and lips. In most cases, patients took these sulfa-containing antimalarials in combination with numerous other drugs, particularly analgesics. Unlike chloroquine-induced pruritus, which affects most Africans, the association between antimalarials and FDE has not been well documented in our region. Co-trimoxazole was associated more often than antimalarials with FDEs involving the mucocutaneous junctions of the genitalia and lips. Males with genital lesions on the glans penis represented 11 (48%) of those with co-trimoxazole hypersensitivity. The trunk and limbs were affected mainly by pyrazoles and Butazolidin, respectively; however, solitary lesions on the trunk were usually due to co-trimoxazole, whereas solitary lesions on the limbs were associated with Butazolidin.
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Our whole genome sequence (WGS) pipeline was assessed for accurate prediction of antimicrobial phenotypes. For 2316 invasive pneumococcal isolates recovered during 2015 we compared WGS pipeline data to broth dilution testing (BDT) for 18 antimicrobials. For 11 antimicrobials categorical discrepancies were assigned when WGS-predicted MICs and BDT MICs predicted different categorizations for susceptibility, intermediate resistance or resistance, ranging from 0.9% (tetracycline) to 2.9% (amoxicillin). For β-lactam antibiotics, the occurrence of at least four-fold differences in MIC ranged from 0.2% (meropenem) to 1.0% (penicillin), although phenotypic retesting resolved 25%-78% of these discrepancies. Non-susceptibility to penicillin, predicted by penicillin-binding protein types, was 2.7% (non-meningitis criteria) and 23.8% (meningitis criteria). Other common resistance determinants included mef (475 isolates), ermB (191 isolates), ermB + mef (48 isolates), tetM (261 isolates) and cat (51 isolates). Additional accessory resistance genes (tetS, tet32, aphA-3, sat4) were rarely detected (one to three isolates). Rare core genome mutations conferring erythromycin-resistance included a two-codon rplD insertion (rplD69-KG-70) and the 23S rRNA A2061G substitution (six isolates). Intermediate cotrimoxazole-resistance was associated with one or two codon insertions within folP (238 isolates) or the folA I100L substitution (38 isolates), whereas full cotrimoxazole-resistance was attributed to alterations in both genes (172 isolates). The two levofloxacin-resistant isolates contained parC and/or gyrA mutations. Of 11 remaining isolates with moderately elevated MICs to both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, seven contained parC or gyrA mutations. The two rifampin-resistant isolates contained rpoB mutations. WGS-based antimicrobial phenotype prediction was an informative alternative to BDT for invasive pneumococci.
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Diagnostic clinical criteria and imaging techniques, the role of antimicrobial therapy and duration of treatment, and the role of adjunct therapy, including decongestants, glucocorticosteroids and nasal irrigation.
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Exposure to daily CTX in pregnancy may not be associated with particular safety risks in terms of birth outcomes such as preterm deliveries, still births, neonatal deaths and spontaneous abortions compared to SP. However, more data are required on CTX use in pregnant women both among HIV infected and un-infected individuals.
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a seldom-reported pathogen in ocular infections. The report describes six cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) keratitis and scleritis. To our knowledge, this is the foremost report of S. maltophilia scleritis.
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Thirty-four homosexual patients with AIDS were treated for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia between April 1984 and November 1985. All 31 survivors were treated with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis immediately upon completion of intravenous therapy, despite the prior occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous TMP-SMX in 21 of these patients. Only four patients had subsequent reactions to oral TMP-SMX requiring the drug's discontinuation. None of the patients remaining on prophylaxis developed recurrent Pneumocystis pneumonia. Oral TMP-SMX appears effective at preventing recurrent Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Hypersensitivity reactions during therapy with TMP-SMX may not be a contraindication to continuation of therapy and subsequent oral prophylaxis.
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The bacterial flora in the urine samples of 15 nursing home patients with long-term, indwelling catheters were examined monthly for one year. There was a rapidly changing polymicrobial flora averaging 2.0 changes per month in species with colony counts greater than 100,000/mL, and 3.2 changes per month when changes in species, biogram, and quantity of bacteria were considered. The flora changed significantly more frequently, and cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii, and Citrobacter diversus were significantly more frequent in those receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis than in those who did not. There was no difference in incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) between those patients who received sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis and those who did not. Ampicillin or gentamicin was effective against 99% of species cultured that are of established UTI pathogenicity. Owing to the rapidity of bacterial flora changes, routine monthly cultures are of little predictive value in patients with indwelling catheters. This study does not support the efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis in such patients.
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The study sought evidence for changes in the proportions of antibiotic resistant strains among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) between 2005 and 2012.
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To determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI.