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A MEDLINE search of articles published between January 1980 and December 1991. For clinical trial data, greatest emphasis was placed on randomized, double-blind studies using appropriate controls.
Two patients underwent simultaneous bilateral LASIK; however, only one developed postoperative keratitis in both eyes. One patient had unilateral surgery and developed keratitis in the operated eye. Microscopic examination of smears from all eyes revealed thin, branching, acid-fast, filamentous bacteria that were identified as Nocardia asteroides after culture. The infiltrates resolved with topical administration of amikacin sulphate (2.5%) and topical and oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Final visual acuity ranged between 20/25 and 20/80. The operating surgeon had used the same blade and microkeratome in all patients.
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These results suggest that conventional approaches to monitoring for patterns of susceptibility may be inadequate. It is imperative that practitioners develop novel approaches to identifying patients with risk factors for resistance. Identification of risk factors from this evaluation should prompt providers to scrutinize the use of these agents in the setting of patients presenting with an uncomplicated UTI in the ED.
Only 3 (4.3%) control foals developed diarrhea; none developed hyperthermia or respiratory distress. Foals treated with erythromycin had an 8-fold risk (RR, 8.3) of developing diarrhea, compared with control foals, and increased risks of hyperthermia (AR, 25%) and respiratory distress (AR, 15%).
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Nitrofurantoin was cost-minimizing when the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance exceeded 12% among uropathogens or the prevalence of TMP-SMX resistance exceeded 17%. On 2-way sensitivity analysis, variables that had a significant impact on our cost-minimization threshold included cost of antibiotics and probability of clinical cure with antibiotics.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered from a general hospital in Oporto, Portugal, during two periods (1992-1993 and 1996-2000) were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI fragments, and by hybridization of ClaI digests with mecA and Tn554 probes, discriminating the isolates in mecA::Tn554::PFGE genotypes. In addition, a representative sample of the defined genotypes was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec) typing, generating the corresponding ST-SCCmec types. In 1992-1993, 77% of MRSA belonged to the Iberian clone (genotype I::E::A or ST247-IA). In 1996-2000, the frequency of this clone decreased to 19% and the majority (69%) of the isolates belonged to another international clone, the Brazilian MRSA (genotype XI::B::B or ST239-IIIA). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) was confirmed to be an important phenotypic marker to distinguish the Iberian (SXT-susceptible) and the Brazilian (SXT-resistant) clones in MRSA isolates from Portugal. Our observations document major shifts in the dominant MRSA clonal types that occurred in this hospital since 1992, suggesting a selective advantage of the Brazilian relatively to the Iberian clone. In addition to these two MRSA clones that are the most frequent in Portuguese hospitals since the early 1990s, sporadic MRSA clones (representing 14% of the total) were identified and characterized.
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To determine if exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) causes a defect in peripheral B-cell function among patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are receiving zidovudine antiretroviral therapy.
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A study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub MICs (1/2-1/8 MIC) of ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole on E. coli adhesiveness to human vaginal epithelial cells using three strains ATCC 25922, MTCC 729 and U 105.
We report a case of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed and monitored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Pneumocystis carinii on sputum and measurement of plasma (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (G-test). Results of both studies paralleled the clinical and radiographic improvement. However, the plasma (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan level remained higher than normal when PCR for Pneumocystis carinii became negative in sputum. Both PCR for Pneumocystis carinii on sputum and measurement of plasma (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan are useful for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of Pneumocystis carinii, although further investigation is necessary to quantify their relationship.