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The post-operative care is important and the irrigation liquid can affect the effect of ESS.
Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been proposed as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing surgery. Conversely, an elevated BMI may confer a protective effect on perioperative morbidity.
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Consecutive H. pylori-positive patients with endoscopy-proven ulcer or non ulcer dyspepsia were prospectively randomized in the trial into one of three groups: AM and AC group were administered a tri-therapy for 7 days including PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole (AM group)/clarithromycin (AC group) and SQ group was administered a sequential regimen consisting of PPI + amoxicillin for 5 days followed by PPI + clarithromycin + metronidazole for the remaining 5 days. Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test 3 months after the end of the treatment.
Giardiasis is a severe intestinal parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia, which inflicts many people in poor regions and is the most common parasitic infection in the United States. Current standard care drugs are associated with undesirable side effects, treatment failures, and an increasing incidence of drug resistance. As follow-up to a high-throughput screening of an approved drug library, which identified compounds lethal to G. lamblia trophozoites, we have determined the minimum lethal concentrations of 28 drugs and advanced 10 of them to in vivo studies in mice. The results were compared to treatment with the standard care drug, metronidazole, in order to identify drugs with equal or better anti-Giardia activities. Three drugs, fumagillin, carbadox, and tioxidazole, were identified. These compounds were also potent against metronidazole-resistant human G. lamblia isolates (assemblages A and B), as determined in in vitro assays. Of these three compounds, fumagillin is currently an orphan drug used within the European Union to treat microsporidiosis in immunocompromised individuals, whereas carbadox and tioxidazole are used in veterinary medicine. A dose-dependent study of fumagillin in a giardiasis mouse model revealed that the effective dose of fumagillin was ∼ 100-fold lower than the metronidazole dose. Therefore, fumagillin may be advanced to further studies as an alternative treatment for giardiasis when metronidazole fails.
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Conditioned supernatants from gut microbes were used to stimulate murine innate cell types in vitro and in vivo, and proinflammatory responses were characterised. Effects of antibiotic therapies on these responses were investigated using a model of experimental intestinal barrier damage induced by dextran sodium sulfate.
The prevailing treatment paradigm in periodontal disease relies on debriding the tooth surfaces to keep the bacterial load below the level that triggers tissue loss. When debridement cannot be easily accomplished because of deep pocketing, access surgery is recommended. The debridement approach that involves access surgery is successful in 80% to 85% of patients. Patients who do not respond are often treated with systemic antibiotics. This paradigm, which is based on the nonspecific plaque hypothesis, is labor-intensive and relies on antibiotics only as a last resort. This nonspecific treatment paradigm is in contrast with the specific plaque hypothesis, which states that a limited number of bacterial species are specifically involved in most forms of periodontal disease. Some studies have significantly associated anaerobic bacteria with advanced forms of periodontal disease. These observations led us to hypothesize that most forms of periodontal disease are anaerobic infections, which can be treated by antimicrobials such as metronidazole or clindamycin. Three double-blind studies have shown that 1 to 2 weeks of unsupervised use of metronidazole-plus-debridement was significantly better than placebo-plus-debridement in reducing the need for periodontal surgery. These findings suggest that treatments based on the specific plaque hypothesis give clinicians and patients a choice regarding treatment options in periodontal disease.
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Fourteen healthy male volunteers were selected. The study had an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 21-day washout period between the phases. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet detection.
Resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori is increasing and becoming a serious problem in eradication treatment of H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori infections that are resistant to clarithromycin, metronidazole, or both were determined in H. pylori isolates in Hiroshima, Japan.
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Multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study in 3 independent gynecological practices in Belgium.
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Studies examining the prevalence, baseline characteristics and outcome of patients admitted with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) are not readily available in Nigeria. This study aims to evaluate the management of CAP at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria with a view to determining the prevalence, characteristics, severity and outcome of the admitted patients.