All tuberculosis patients with isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis strains from October 1995 to September 1997 were included. Susceptibility tests isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin and pyrazinamide were performed using the Bactec 460 system and the proportions method on solid medium. Logistic progression was used for statistical analysis.
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Mycobacterium malmoense is an atypical mycobacterium previously isolated from lymph nodes in children and from adults with pulmonary disease. Disseminated infection is extremely rare and bone marrow involvement has never previously been described. We report a patient with chronic granulocytic leukaemia and persistent fever with granuloma in the bone marrow due to disseminated M. malmoense infection. The patient initially received treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol and rifampicin with clearance of mycobacteria in the bone marrow and clinical improvement. Sensitivity in vitro was established for streptomycin, amikacin, ethambutol and rifabutin. The patient eventually expired as a result of progressive respiratory failure from other opportunistic infections. At autopsy staining of samples from lung parenchyma revealed fungal hyphi but staining for Pneumocystis carinii and myobacteria were negative.
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Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterised by fever, rash, eosinophilia and organ damage that develops 2-6 weeks after the initiation of a medication. We report a case of DRESS syndrome in a 79-year-old man that developed after the introduction of rifabutin, ethambutol and clarithromycin used to treat Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) vertebral osteomyelitis. This case highlights treatment and management challenges in a patient with known MAC vertebral osteomyelitis requiring prolonged steroids. Steroids are the mainstays of treatment for moderate to severe cases of DRESS syndrome. Initiation of steroids for the treatment of DRESS syndrome among patients with concomitant infections requires multidisciplinary collaboration for optimal management.
We describe a case of tuberculous epididymitis that occurred 35 months after completion of a course of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). A 67-year-old man had received trasuretheral resection for bladder cancer in February 1997. Two weeks after the operation, a course of 8 weekly intravesical instillations of BCG (Tokyo 172 strain) was carried out between March and April, 1997. Under the diagnosis of benign prostatic hypertrophy, transuretheral resection of the prostate was performed in March 1998. Multiple tuberculous nodules were histopathologically detected in resected prostatic tissues. The patient complained of a small nodule in the right epididymal tail in August 2001. The nodule developed during 6 weeks, with spontaneous perforation of the scrotal skin and discharge of pus. The pus contained acid-fast bacilli, which were shown to be tubercle bacilli by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with pan-mycobacterium primer. MPB64-T2, T6 and pncA-7, 11C were positive, while PT-1, 2 and pncA-7, 10 were negative by PCR. These results revealed that Mycobacterium bovis (BCG Organism) was the cause of the epididymitis. Drug therapy for 3 months with rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol was initiated in September 2001, and right orchiectomy was performed in October. Histopathological examination showed tuberculous epididymitis. In this case, persistent BCG organisms may have reached the epididymis from the prostate, and may have been activated by immunosuppression associated with aging. In addition, PCR with species-specific primers was useful in differentiating Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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The low level of drug resistance enables antituberculosis treatment of non-treated patients to start with the standardised three-drug regimes except in the case of foreign people from countries with a high level of drug resistance. Susceptibility tests are recommended on all M. tuberculosis strains isolated, together with controlled studies of drug resistance surveillance.
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Direct sequencing was used to analyze the polymorphism of embB mutation in 51 EMB-resistant MTB strains and 50 EMB-sensitive MTB strains. And diagnostic testing was used to evaluate the value of embB306 as a molecular marker of EMB -resistant MTB strains as compared with the traditional sensitivity test.
Antimycobacterial therapy may result in significant reductions in chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesion diameter compared with placebo. These observed reductions, associated with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms, were present at the 180-day follow-up period. Transcriptome analysis of sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells revealed reversal of pathways associated with disease severity and enhanced T-cell function following T-cell receptor stimulation.
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A 47-year-old man diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis was referred to our hospital. Rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol were administered, and the patient's symptoms promptly improved. On the 19th hospital day, he developed acute kidney injury with a fever and chills. Renal biopsy specimens indicated tubulointerstitial nephritis. Suspecting rifampicin-induced acute kidney injury, we discontinued the rifampicin and administered levofloxacin in its place. The patient's serum creatinine level subsequently gradually improved. We herein report this case and review eight cases reported in Japan. We found that the rifampicin toxicity appeared at both the initial administration and readministration. All eight patients presented with proteinuria.
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A cross-sectional observational study of 17 visually asymptomatic patients receiving antituberculosis therapy with ethambutol. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination and mfERG recordings. The first-order mfERG N1 and P1 response amplitudes and implicit times of six concentric rings were analysed and compared with 17 normal age-similar controls. Correlation analyses were performed between the patients' mfERG parameters with parameters of ethambutol usage (daily dose of ethambutol per body weight, duration of ethambutol therapy, cumulative dose of ethambutol, and cumulative dose of ethambutol per body weight).
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A cross sectional survey was undertaken of 600 patients (309 civilians, 291 prisoners) with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB over a 1 year period during 2001-2 in Samara Oblast, Russia.