Several compound preparations were implicated in drug-induced bilateral 2° ACG. Treating physicians should be aware that some forms of recreational drug use, which the patient may not admit to, could contribute to this vision-threatening side effect.
A strain of K. pneumoniae was sent to space for 398 h aboard the ShenZhou VIII spacecraft during November 1, 2011-November 17, 2011. At the same time, a ground simulation with similar temperature conditions during the space flight was performed as a control. After the space mission, the flight and control strains were analyzed using phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques.
Twenty one (65.3%) patients presented within 15 days of the onset of symptoms with typical clinical features of Nocardia keratitis, ie, a ring-like distribution of superficial infiltrates in a wreath pattern. Eight patients (25%) who presented after 15 days and within 30 days had an ulcer resembling fungal keratitis. N. Cyriacigeorgica (n = 11; 34.37%), N. asteroides (n = 9; 28%), N. farcinica (n = 7; 22%,) and N. Otitidiscaviarum (n = 5; 16%). All the species had 100% sensitivity to amikacin, sulphamethoxazole, imipenem and co-trimoxazole. Time to diagnosis of the infection was significantly associated with the different types of clinical presentation; those presenting early having the typical clinical picture (P = 0.004). Patients (73%) presenting within 15 days showed a highest recovery rate. (P = 0.045). The recovery time of the patients when compared with species showed those who were infected with N. cyriageorgica had a healing time of less than 15 days. Clinically, healing was faster when treated with 2% amikacin. Visual outcome improved in fourteen patients (44%) and sixteen (50%) patients remained the same (P = 0.0001).
An open randomised trial was conducted to compare ceftazidime (120 mg/kg/day) with "conventional therapy" (chloramphenicol 100 mg/kg/day, doxycycline 4 mg/kg/day, trimethoprim 10 mg/kg/day, and sulphamethoxazole 50 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of severe melioidosis. A paired restricted sequential trial designed to detect a reduction in mortality from 80 to 40% in culture-positive patients surviving greater than 48 hours was stopped after 22 months. Of the 161 patients entered into the study, 65 had bacteriologically confirmed melioidosis and 54 of these were septicaemic. Ceftazidime treatment was associated with a 50% (95% CI 19-81%) lower overall mortality than conventional treatment (74% vs 37%; p = 0.009) and should now become the treatment of choice for severe melioidosis.
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We report a predominance of CA-MRSA SSTIs, favorable antibiotic susceptibilities, and frequent use of TMP-SMX in primary care clinics.
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A 66-year-old male treated with everolimus for renal cell carcinoma developed exertional dyspnea. Chest computed tomography revealed diffuse interstitial shadows on both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage and the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial lung disease due to everolimus therapy. However, discontinuation of everolimus in combination with corticosteroid therapy did not prevent disease progression. On the basis of a PCR assay for Pneumocystis jirovecii and elevated β-D-glucan levels, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was administered immediately, resulting in a dramatic improvement. This case demonstrated that pneumocystis pneumonia should always be considered and treated during everolimus therapy, even when drug-induced interstitial lung disease is suspected.
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Patients were randomized to eflornithine (400 mg/kg daily, as a continuous intravenous infusion) or cotrimoxazole (3.84 g twice daily, intravenously) for 14 days.
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Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with reduced morbidity and mortality and had beneficial effects on CD4-cell count and viral load. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is a readily available, effective intervention for people with HIV infection in Africa.
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Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.
A cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandans aged 15 or older was followed from 2000 to 2008. Clinical, haematological and immunological measurements were taken at 6-monthly visits. Additionally, patients reported to outpatient clinics whenever they were ill. Patients with elevated axillary temperature above 37.4 °C consistently triggered clinical assessment (with mandatory blood cultures) and empirical management protocol. Daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were introduced stepwise to eligible patients in August 2000 and February 2003, respectively. We compared the rates of bacteraemia across five calendar periods using random-effects Poisson regression for the effect of HAART at the population level.