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One hundred twenty-four references had sufficient information concerning numbers of subjects, methods, and findings to be included.
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For the therapy of acute cholangitis complete biliary drainage and antibiotic therapy is needed. The aim of the current study was to compare intravenous therapy of acute cholangitis with Ceftriaxone or Levofloxacin in a prospective and randomized fashion.
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We aimed to assess the resistance rates for H. pylori against these antibiotics in an Irish cohort.
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We previously reported the first 'reverse antibiotic' (RA), nybomycin (NYB), which showed a unique antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. NYB specifically suppressed the growth of quinolone-resistant S. aureus strains but was not effective against quinolone-susceptible strains. Although NYB was first reported in 1955, little was known about its unique antimicrobial activity because it was before the synthesis of the first quinolone ('old quinolone'), nalidixic acid, in 1962. Following our re-discovery of NYB, we looked for other RAs among natural substances that act on quinolone-resistant bacteria. Commercially available flavones were screened against S. aureus, including quinolone-resistant strains, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were compared using the microbroth dilution method. Some of the flavones screened showed stronger antimicrobial activity against quinolone-resistant strains than against quinolone-susceptible ones. Amongst them, apigenin (API) was the most potent in its RA activity. DNA cleavage assay showed that API inhibited DNA gyrase harbouring the quinolone resistance mutation gyrA(Ser84Leu) but did not inhibit 'wild-type' DNA gyrase that is sensitive to levofloxacin. An API-susceptible S. aureus strain Mu50 was also selected using agar plates containing 20mg/L API. Whole-genome sequencing of selected mutant strains was performed and frequent back-mutations (reverse mutations) were found among API-resistant strains derived from the API-susceptible S. aureus strains. Here we report that API represents another molecular class of natural antibiotic having RA activity against quinolone-resistant bacteria.
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The in vitro antimicrobial activities of five compounds isolated from lichens, collected in several Southern regions of Chile (including the Chilean Antarctic Territory), were evaluated alone and in combination with five therapeutically available antibiotics, using checkerboard microdilution assay against methicillin-resistant clinical isolates strains of Staphylococcus aureus. MIC90, MIC50, as well as MBC90 and MBC50, for the lichen compounds were evaluated. The MIC90 was ranging from 32 µg/ml for perlatolic acid to 128 µg/ml for α-collatolic acid. MBC90 was ranging from onefold up to twofold the MIC90 for each compound. A synergistic action was observed in combination with gentamicin, whilst antagonism was observed for some lichen compounds in combination with levofloxacin. All combinations with erythromycin were indifferent, whilst variability was observed for clindamycin and oxacillin combinations. Data from checkerboard assay were analysed and interpreted using the fractional inhibitory concentration index and the response surface approach using the ΔE model. Discrepancies were found between both methods for some combinations. These could mainly be explained by the failure of FIC approach, being too much subjective and sensitive to experimental errors. These findings suggest, however, that the natural compounds from lichens are good candidates for the individuation of novel templates for the development of new antimicrobial agents or combinations of drugs for chemotherapy.
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In the intention-to-treat sample at visit 3, the clinical success rate was higher in the Microcyn Rx alone group (75.0%) than in the saline plus levofloxacin group (57.1%) or in the Microcyn Rx plus levofloxacin group (64.0%). Results at visit 4 were similar. In the clinically evaluable population, the clinical success rate at visit 3 (end of treatment) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 77.8% versus 61.1% for the levofloxacin group. The clinical success rate at visit 4 (test of cure) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 93.3% versus 56.3% for levofloxacin plus saline-treated patients. This study was not statistically powered, but the high clinical success rate (93.3%) and the P value (P = .033) suggest that the difference is meaningfully positive for Microcyn Rx-treated patients.
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The antimicrobials resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was able to sharply decline the eradication rate of H. pylori both in adults and children, but there are limited studies about the primary antibiotic resistance and the related gene mutations, specifically in China.
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A levofloxacin-based triple therapy and a rifabutin-based regimen are advised as second-line and rescue therapies in the current Italian guidelines for H. pylori eradication. However, no data are available for the efficacy of these treatments in clinical practice.
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The potential for resistance development in Streptococcus pneumoniae secondary to exposure to gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin at various levels was examined at high inoculum (10(8.5) to 10(9) log10 CFU/ml) over 96 h in an in vitro pharmacodynamic (PD) model using two fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates. The pharmacokinetics of each drug was simulated to provide a range of free areas under the concentration-time curves (fAUC) that correlated with various fluoroquinolone doses. Potential first (parC and parE)- and second-step (gyrA and gyrB) mutations in isolates with raised MICs were identified by sequence analysis. PD models simulating fAUC/MICs of 51 andgatifloxacin>moxifloxacin=gemifloxacin, which may be related to structural differences within the class.
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All the PRGBS had the key amino acid substitution V405A, together with F395L, R433H, H438Y and G648A in PBP 2X and T567I in PBP 2B. A 23S rRNA methylase gene, erm(B), was also found in all 10 PRGBS strains. PFGE analysis revealed considerable genetic relatedness among the isolates. Isolates of pulsotype I were obtained from four patients in ward A and one patient in ward B, while isolates of pulsotypes II and III were obtained from two patients in ward B and one patient in ward C, respectively. Isolates of pulsotype I were resistant to levofloxacin (MIC >8 mg/L) and had the following amino acid substitutions in the QRDRs: S81L in GyrA, E476K in GyrB and S79Y in ParC. However, pulsotype II strains resistant to levofloxacin (MIC 8 mg/L) had no change in GyrA, but changes in GyrB (E476K) and ParC (S79Y). All 10 PRGBS strains belonged to serotype VI and ST458 (where ST stands for sequence type).