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Literature retrieval was accessed through MEDLINE (1966-January 2010) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-January 2010) using the terms OPT-80, difimicin, PAR-101, fidaxomicin, tiacumicin, lipiarmycin, and Clostridium difficile. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed.
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Approximately 100 cases of giardiasis incidence are reported each year in Japan. The actual infection rate, however, is suspected to be higher since giardiasis is often overlooked due to the mildness of its symptoms. We investigated the presence of trophozoites of Giardia lamblia microscopically in sediment of whole gut lavage fluid obtained from patients undergoing colonoscopy.
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We report the results of a study concerning the characteristics of 52 strains of Mobiluncus spp. isolated from 982 vaginal secretions from patients with suspected bacterial vaginosis. 158 of these women presented the features of this bacterial infection. Of the strains isolated, 39 belonged to the species Mobiluncus curtisii, (25 of these which to M. curtisii subsp. curtisii and 14, to M. curtisii subsp. holmesii), and 13, to Mobiluncus mulieris. The vaginal isolates of Mobiluncus spp. were identified by comparing their biochemical profiles with those of the type strains M. curtisii subsp. holmesii (ATCC 35,242), M. curtisii subsp. curtisii (ATCC 35,241) and M. mulieris (ATCC 35,243). All strains of M. mulieris proved to be sensitive to the antimicrobial agents assayed, while strains of M. curtisii were seen to be resistant only to metronidazole.
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Triple therapy combining a proton pump inhibitor with two antibiotics, e.g. clarythromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MTZ) or amoxicillin (AMX), represents the standard in Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens. Resistance to antimicrobial agents, particularly MTZ (up to 56% in Western countries) and CLR (up to 15% in southern Europe), is frequently observed and may be associated with treatment failure . Recently, several studies indicated that individual H. pylori colonies from a single anatomic site may not always yield identical genotypes, or the identical patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics [2-5]. Representative for every single patient we analyzed 27 H. pylori antrum isolates for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in order to test whether identical H. pylori genotypes exhibit a similar pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics.
Helicobacter pylori is an extremely diverse species. The characterization of strains isolated from individual patients should give insights into colonization and disease mechanisms and bacterial evolution. We studied H. pylori isolates from patients in the Japanese-Peruvian Polyclinic in Lima, Peru, by determining metronidazole susceptibility or resistance and by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting (a measure of overall genotype). Strains isolated from several biopsy specimens from each of 24 patients were studied. Both metronidazole-susceptible and -resistant strains were isolated from 13 patients, whereas strains of more than one RAPD type were isolated from only seven patients. We propose that the homogeneity in RAPD fingerprints for strains isolated from most persons reflects selection for particular H. pylori genotypes during chronic infection in individual hosts and the human diversity in traits that are important to this pathogen. Carriage of related metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains could reflect frequent metronidazole use in Peru and alternating selection for resistant and susceptible phenotypes during and after metronidazole therapy.
Type 2 diabetes and insulin use in the diabetic patients are significantly associated with a higher incidence of HP eradication. Additionally, use of calcium channel blocker also shows a significant association with HP eradication.
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Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug enteropathy is a stepwise process involving direct mucosal toxicity, mitochondrial damage, breakdown of intercellular integrity, enterohepatic recirculation and neutrophil activation by luminal contents including bacteria. Unlike upper gastrointestinal toxicity, cyclooxygenase-mediated mechanisms are probably less important. Newer imaging modalities such as capsule endoscopy studies demonstrate nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced small bowel erosions, but the clinical implications are unclear.
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This study has shown that systemic usage of metronidazole and amoxicillin, when used in conjunction with initial periodontal treatment in adult periodontitis patients, achieves significantly better clinical and microbiological results than initial periodontal treatment alone. Moreover, this research suggests that especially patients diagnosed with P. gingivalis benefit from antibiotic treatment.
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Several treatments have been described for hemorrhagic radiation proctitis. The treatment outcomes are variable. Colonic irrigation and oral antibiotics for hemorrhagic radiation proctitis have been recently reported to be a novel and promising therapeutic approach. However, a comparative study of this treatment has never been investigated.
Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by Propionibacterium acnes account for a larger proportion of the total number of PJIs than previously assumed and thus knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. acnes is of great value in everyday clinical practice.