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Pediazole (Ilosone)
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Pediazole

Pediazole (brand names include: Erycin / Eromax / Acnesol / Agrocin / Robimycin / E-Mycin / E.E.S. Granules / Filmtab / Eryc / Erypar / Eryped / Erythrocin / Erythrocot / E-Base / Erythroped / Ilosone / MY-E / Pediamycin / Zineryt / Abboticin / Abboticin-ES / Stiemycine / Acnasol / Tiloryth) is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic.

Other names for this medication:
Eltocin, Erythromycin, Ilosone

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Also known as:  Ilosone.

Description

Pediazole is a prescription medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Pediazole belongs to a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. These work by killing or stopping the growth of the bacteria that cause infections. This medication comes in capsule, tablet, long-acting capsule, long-acting tablet, chewable tablet, suspension, and pediatric drop forms for oral use. It is usually taken 3 to 4 times daily.

This medication also comes in topical solution and gel forms and as an ophthalmic ointment. Do not chew, divide, or break the long-acting capsules and tablets. Swallow these whole and take with a full glass of water. This medication is also available in an injectable form to be given directly into a vein (IV) by a healthcare professional. Common side effects of Pediazole include stomach upset, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, mild skin rash, and stomach pain. Ophthalmic Pediazole can also cause blurred vision. Do not drive or operate heavy machinery until you know how Pediazole affects you.

Dosage

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Pediazole Tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Pediazole Tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Pediazole Tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Overdose

If you take too much erythromycin, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If erythromycin is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Pediazole are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Prescribing Pediazole Tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Since Pediazole is principally excreted by the liver, caution should be exercised when Pediazole is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function.

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of symptoms of myasthenic syndrome has been reported in patients receiving Pediazole therapy.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following Pediazole therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given Pediazole for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5%) developed symptoms of non-bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. A possible dose-response effect was described with an absolute risk of IHPS of 5.1% for infants who took Pediazole for 8 to 14 days and 10% for infants who took Pediazole for 15 to 21 days.5 Since Pediazole may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections), the benefit of Pediazole therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

Prolonged or repeated use of Pediazole may result in an overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria or fungi. If superinfection occurs, Pediazole should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

When indicated, incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

Observational studies in humans have reported cardiovascular malformations after exposure to drug products containing Pediazole during early pregnancy.

pediazole drug

Five hundred eight-four patients were fully evaluable. The most frequent diagnoses included tonsillopharyngitis (n = 231), otitis media (n = 170) and lower respiratory tract infections (n = 114). Most frequently prescribed antibiotics included amoxicillin (n = 102), potassium penicillin V (n = 81) and clarithromycin (n = 67). Overall compliance (positive urine test) on the last day of therapy was 69.5% (406 of 584 patients). Compliance was not significantly influenced by the region of residence or the underlying bacterial infection. It was significantly associated with the antibiotic used (macrolides, 89.0%; penicillins, 62.2%; cephalosporins, 66.4%; P = 0.0001 for macrolides vs. the others). Best compliance was found with clarithromycin (94.0%) and erythromycin estolate (89.8%). Compliance was also significantly better in patients > or =6 years old (77.7%; P = 0.016); with a treatment duration of < or =7 days (77.6%; P = 0.014); when the drug package contained a dose-taking reminder (79.7%; P = 0.003); and when the pediatrician's behavior toward the patient was assessed by the parents as "very sympathetic" or "sympathetic" (72.6%; P = 0.017). Subjecting all variables to logistic regression analysis, we found 3 variables to be significant predictors of treatment compliance: choice of antibiotic (P = 0.0001); patient age (P = 0.0008); and residence in town or city (P = 0.03).

pediazole reviews

To determine the importance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) of children from different latitudes and to compare clinical outcome using azithromycin (AZM) versus either amoxicillin-clavulanate (A-C) or erythromycin estolate (EE).

pediazole antibiotic dose peds

Conjunctival and nasopharyngeal cultures for Chlamydia trachomatis were obtained from infants 30 days of age or younger with purulent conjunctivitis. Conjunctival specimens were also tested for other bacterial pathogens and for viruses. Most of the infants studied were black and came from a low-income, urban population. By random assignment infants received either topical treatment with 10% sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic solution or systemic treatment with oral erythromycin estolate (50 mg/kg/day). Treatment was continued for 14 days if C trachomatis was isolated from the conjunctivae. Treatment was considered to be effective if conjunctivitis resolved and if follow-up chlamydial cultures of the conjunctivae and nasopharynx were negative at completion of therapy and two to four weeks later. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in the absence of other pathogens from the eyes of 37 (73%) of 51 infants with conjunctivitis. Other bacterial pathogens were isolated from four infants (8%) and viruses from none. Chlamydial infection was eradicated from 14 (93%) of 15 infants treated orally. In contrast, persistent conjunctival infection was detected in eight infants (57%) and nasopharyngeal colonization in three (21%) of 14 infants after topical treatment. It was concluded that C trachomatis is the most frequent cause of neonatal conjunctivitis in the low-income, urban population studied; that erythromycin estolate administered orally for 14 days eradicates chlamydial conjunctival and nasopharyngeal infection; and that topical sulfacetamide therapy may result in persistent conjunctival infection and nasopharyngeal colonization.

pediazole medication

Food was withheld from foals overnight before intragastric administration of erythromycin estolate (25 mg/kg of body weight; n = 8) and erythromycin phosphate (25 mg/kg; 7). Four foals received both drugs with 2 weeks between treatments. Plasma erythromycin concentrations were determined at various times after drug administration by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma peak concentrations, time to maximum concentrations, area under plasma concentration versus time curves, half-life of elimination, and mean residence times were determined from concentration versus time curves.

pediazole generic

More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more reliable eradication of β-hemolytic streptococci is desirable. In cases of allergy or incompatibility of penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides (e.g. Erythromycin-estolate) are valuable alternatives.

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Chang liver cells and isolated rat hepatocytes were exposed to medium containing different concentrations of erythromycin estolate or erythromycin base for 1-5 h. Hepatotoxicity was quantitated by measuring leakage of enzymes from cells into surrounding medium and the damage to the plasma cell membrane seen under surface scanning electron microscopy. Only the cells exposed to erythromycin estolate showed significantly greater enzyme leakage than controls and appeared severely affected by cytopathic changes when observed under scanning electron microscopy.

pediazole dosage for children

Erythromycin acistrate is a new 2'-acetyl esther prodrug of erythromycin, whose structure resembles that of erythromycin estolate. However, in toxicological studies, it does not have the problems of hepatotoxicity. To assess its effects on hepatic functions in clinical practice, the liver parameters of patients with respiratory tract or skin infections were monitored during therapy. In total 1549 patients were treated for 7-14 days. In addition, 127 patients with suspected viral infections served as controls. There were no significant differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) or alkaline phosphatase (APHOS) values between the erythromycin acistrate or control groups at the beginning or end of therapy. ASAT values increased moderately in 2.4% and clearly in 0.3% of patients treated, but also decreased in 2.0%. ALAT values were moderately increased in 9.9%, clearly increased in 0.6% and normalized in 3.5% of the patients. gamma-GT values increased moderately in 3.5% and and clearly in 0.3%, but decreased to normal in 3.3% of the patients. APHOS was moderately elevated in 1.0% of the patients and normalized in 1.3%. The correlation of changes between the different liver enzymes was poor. Only ten patients (0.6%) had two or more clearly elevated liver enzyme values by the end of the therapy, of whom five had increased liver enzyme activities before the treatment, two had underlying disease explaining the changes and in only three patients out of 1549 (0.2%) could hepatic changes be attributed to erythromycin acistrate therapy. These changes were reversible. The results demonstrate the hepatic safety of erythromycin acistrate in clinical practice. Concomitant food intake did not affect the safety profile.

pediazole antibiotic

We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2011).

pediazole medicine

Sectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to determine the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo.

pediazole dose

Six groups, each containing 50 patients with acute maxillary sinusitis, were treated with ampicillin plus nasal decongestant, ampicillin plus irrigation, cephradine plus nasal decongestant, cephradine plus irrigation, erythromycinestolate plus nasal decongestant, erythromycinestolate plus irrigation. The diagnosis was radiologically established and the healing likewise radiologically assessed on the fifth, tenth and fifteenth day. Treatment was given for 10 days. All groups demonstrated a similar radiological healing except cephradine plus nasal decongestant which was inferior to the others. Contrarily, side effects were least frequent in the cephradine groups and most frequent in patients cured with ampicillin. The difficulty in choosing the best treatment is discussed in relation to such factors as therapeutic results, side effects, long-term consequences of antibiotic treatment, establishment of any bacterial etiology and penetration characteristics of antibiotics into the diseased sinus.

pediazole drug class

The potential value of oral erythromycin for antitetanus prophylaxis in non-immune patients with open wounds was assessed. Serum obtained by venepuncture from health persons 2 h after an oral dose of an erythromycin preparation was used as a culture medium rendered anaerobic by addition of cooked meat. Strains of Clostridium tetani inoculated into these sera failed to multiply when the donor had taken 500 mg of erythromycin estolate before a meal; other erythromycin preparations and the estolate at a dosage of 250 mg were ineffective or inconsistent in their inhibition of the growth of Cl. tetani. Human antitetanus globulin (ATG) was given to 12 patients, 9 with severe injuries and 3 with extensive burns, all of whom were judged, from their history, to be non-immune (or with expired immunity); all except one had received large intravenous infusions of blood and/or other fluids. Serum antitoxin assays by a mouse protection technique on days 0, 1--2, 3--5, 6--10 and 14+ showed no detectable antitoxin (less than 0.01) unit/ml) in the initial (pre-ATG) sample from three patients with severe injuries and in one with extensive burns. All the patients in the severely injured group showed an early appearance or increase in tetanus antitoxin to protective titres. Two of the three severely burned patients showed, respectively, a delayed appearance or an increase in antitoxin; the other burned patients showed a reduction from the initial pre-ATG titre, followed by a return to that titre after day 5.

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pediazole antibiotic dose peds 2016-09-26

Two patients experienced hepatotoxicity associated with erythromycin estolate (Ilosone) usage, followed 13 and 15 years later by an hepatotoxic reaction with administration of erythromycin ethylsuccinate (E.E.S.). These cases provide Novamox Dt Tablet further evidence for erythromycin ethylsuccinate-associated hepatotoxicity and demonstrate erythromycin cross-sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both estolate and ethylsuccinate preparations of erythromycin stimulates speculation regarding the potentially hepatotoxic moiety of the erythromycin molecule. Furthermore, these cases suggest that all erythromycin preparations should be avoided or used only with careful monitoring in patients with previous erythromycin-associated liver injury.

pediazole drug 2017-08-04

The clinical pharmacology of orally administered antibiotics was investigated in 106 infants and children. The antibiotic suspensions studied were ampicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin estolate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, penicillin G, and penicillin V. The feeding status of the patients was evaluated in relation to the concentrations of drugs in serum, saliva, and tears. Peak concentrations and area-under-the-curve values of cephalexin, penicillin V, and penicillin G were reduced 40% to 60% in patients given milk and drug concurrently. Absorption was enhanced when erythromycin ethylsuccinate was given milk. After administration of both erythromycin formulations, penicillin V and ampicillin, salivary concentrations exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentrations for most pneumococci and group A streptococci and for many meningococci. The clinical implications Dalacin Oral Dosage of these pharmacokinetic data are discussed.

pediazole dosage for children 2017-07-26

Certain macrolide antibiotics, such as troleandomycin (TAO), oleandomycin, and erythromycin estolate (Ilosone), can lower the maintenance dose of glucocorticoids required by severely asthmatic patients. These effects were postulated to be caused by an as yet undefined steroid-sparing effect. In this study, TAO in combination with methylprednisolone, when compared with methylprednisolone alone, was demonstrated to significantly increase liver glycogen deposition in adrenalectomized mice, intact mice, and adrenalectomized rats; protect histamine-sensitized mice following beta adrenergic blockade or adrenalectomy; further decrease the steroid-lowered glucose tolerance of mice and significantly increase the plasma corticosteroid levels in rats. TAO alone did not have these effects. TAO plus betamethasone, and erythromycin estolate plus methylprednisolone also increased liver glycogen deposition. However, TAO did not appear to potentiate the effects of hydrocortisone. Erythromycin stearate and to a Rodogyl Medicine lesser degree erythromycin ethylsuccinate when combined with methylprednisolone also decreased histamine lethality in mice. Leucomycin and tetracycline did not enhance the effects of methylprednisolone. TAO, alone or with methylprednisolone, did not alter serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels in rats. Thus, TAO and some other macrolides did not exert their effects on corticosteroids as antimicrobial agents, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)--like compounds, or quasisteroids, but as steroid-sparing agents by some undefined mechanism.

pediazole drug class 2015-08-07

Randomized, double- Erythromycin Class Of Antibiotics blind, placebo-controlled study.

pediazole generic 2016-10-17

An open comparative study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of 4 antibiotic regimens in eradicating acute bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Patients in each treatment group had similar physical parameters, severity of disease and bacterial pathogens, and were treated for 10 days with either erythromycin estolate, erythromycin stearate, ampicillin or oxytetracycline in the recommended dosage. Each patient was reviewed daily by physical examination and the bacteriological findings from throat swab and salivary washings. The results showed that erythromycin stearate produced more rapid bacterial eradication and clinical resolution of symptoms and fever Megapen Kid Tablets than with the other antibiotic preparations, and was well tolerated by most patients.

pediazole medicine 2016-01-15

The erythromycins are broadly reviewed from a clinical viewpoint. The antimicrobial spectrum, clinical indications, pharmacokinetics and toxicity are dealt with. The usefulness of erythromycin for respiratory tract infections is stressed. New evidence to support bactericidal activity of this Tab Ceftas Cl antibiotic is noted. There seems little reason to use the potentially hepatotoxic estolate form of erythromycin. The safety of the other forms of this antibiotic available in this country is emphasized.

pediazole reviews 2017-11-20

The effect of erythromycin esteolate Clavamox Cost For Cats (EE) on bile flow and bile acid secretion was studied in male Wistar rats in vivo. Daily oral treatment with a dose of up to 100 mg/kg for 1 week increased the bile flow and the bile acid secretion. Increasing the days of treatment to 4 weeks with a dose of 20 mg/kg did not alter the measured parameters significantly. Acute intravenous injection of erythromycin lactobionate (50 mg/kg) also increased bile flow and biliary bile acid secretion temporarily. The increase in bile flow may partly be due to the osmotic effect of the drug and its metabolites in bile. Since EE failed to produce cholestasis in the range of therapeutic doses, rats do not seem to be a suitable experimental model for studying EE-cholestasis.

pediazole dosage 2017-07-04

Penicillin V, benzathine/procaine penicillin G, cefadroxil monohydrate, and erythromycin estolate were randomly assigned for therapy of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in 198 children. All patients improved with in 24 hours of initiating therapy. Reinfection with a new group A streptococcal serotype occurred in 13 patients, 12 developing 7 to 12 days after stopping therapy and 11 becoming symptomatic. Relapse with the same organism occurred in 16 patients, only 5 (31%) of whom were symptomatic. Antibody titer rises, antibiotic resistance of group A organisms, presence of penicillinase-producing staphylococci, and lack of compliance were not related to recurrent infections. There were no significant differences between the failure rates of the four test drugs: penicillin V, 12%; benzathine/ Ciloxan Dosage Information procaine penicillin G, 12%; cefadroxil monohydrate, 5%; and erythromycin, 2%.

pediazole antibiotic 2016-06-20

We examined the vaginal washings from patients with nonspecific vaginitis (NSV) to seek biochemical markers and possible explanations for the signs and symptoms of this syndrome. Seven amines were identified including methylamine, isobutylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. These amines may contribute to the symptoms of NSV and may contribute to the elevated pH of the vaginal discharge. They may also be partly responsible for the "fishy" odor that is characteristic of vaginal discharges from these patients. Among Buy Tetra Fish Products the seven amines, putrescine and cadaverine were the most abundant and were present in all vaginal discharges from each of ten patients before treatment. These amines are produced in vitro during growth of mixed vaginal bacteria in chemically defined medium, presumably by decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids. We hypothesize the anaerobic vaginal organisms, previously shown to be quantitatively increased in NSV, are responsible for the amine production, because metronidazole inhibited the production of amines by vaginal bacteria in vitro, and Haemophilus vaginalis did not produce amines. H. vaginalis did release high concentrations of pyruvic acid and of amino acids during growth in peptone-starch-dextrose medium, whereas, other vaginal flora consumed both pyruvic acid and amino acids in the same medium during growth. These findings suggest that a symbiotic relationship may exist between H. vaginalis and other vaginal flora in patients with NSV.

pediazole medication 2017-03-10

To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement Amoxicilina Medicine for the market.

pediazole dose 2016-10-03

In a 6-volunteer cross-over study the pharmacokinetics of 3 erythromycin preparations were compared. A single oral dose of 500 mg of each preparation was administered at each Proxime 500 Mg occasion and the levels measured in timed samples of plasma and saliva. Markedly higher blood concentrations of the estolate and propionate were obtained compared to the stearate. Comparison of serum and plasma concentration of the drugs from each split sample showed no significant differences. Plasma concentrations always exceeded those in saliva but for any one preparation a similar ratio was obtained at different times. This may be useful to ascertain compliance and to measure concentration of the compounds where direct measurement in plasma is not practicable.

pediazole generic name 2017-01-05

The possibility that endotoxin pretreatment could prevent the hepatotoxic effects of erythromycin estolate (EE) was investigated using the isolated perfused rat liver. The addition of E. coli endotoxin (25 micrograms/ml) to the perfusate, 30 min prior to EE administration at 150 or 200 microM, significantly ameliorated the decreases in bile and perfusate flow caused by either concentrations of the drug in control liver preparations. This phenomenon was also studied using liver isolated from rats pretreated in vivo with endotoxin for three days. In these preparations, EE at both concentrations did not alter bile flow and caused reductions of perfusate flow which were far less than those observed in untreated control livers. Furthermore, in livers from endotoxin-treated rats EE induced less reduction of bile acid excretion and, at 150 microM, it did not increase the bile to perfusate ratio of sucrose seen in control preparations after the drug, which may be an expression of altered hepatocytic membrane permeability. Since it is known that both endotoxin and EE interact with membranes, it is suggested that the "protective" effects of endotoxin may occur at the membrane level.