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From a total of 1,142 articles 28 were identified and selected for review. The selected papers covered medical problems in prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period, medication of the child during the first years of life, and exposure to fluoride or environmental toxicants (dioxins and PCBs) in the early childhood. Based on the assessment of the articles it was still not possible to specifically name those factors causing MIH although correlations between several potential factors and MIH were presented. Among the factors suggested and found to cause enamel defects in animal experiments were: high fever, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to antibiotics (amoxicillin, a macrolide), and dioxins.
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Resistance to contemporary broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is increasing worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important cause of nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections has rapidly become the most common ESBL producing organism. We examined ESBL production in urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae in relation to the presence of bla(SHV), bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) genes.
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Open clinical trial, randomised and multi-centre, of two treatment protocols: A) Conventional regime -QT- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, bismuth citrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid and metronidazole 500 mg tid); B) Experimental one -OAR- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 gr bid, and rifabutin 150 mg bid), both taken orally for 7 days, in patients with HP infection for whom first-line treatment had failed. Eradication was determined by Urea Breath Test (UBT). Safety was determined by the adverse events.
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The increase of gastric juice pH during the treatment with pantoprazole can lead to microflora growth in gastric juice. Microorganisms isolated from gastric juice among patients treated with antisecretive drugs mainly derived from the upper respiratory tract. Mostly isolated strains were: S. aureus, E. coli, Candida albicans.
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Prevalence of penicillin and macrolide-azalide resistance among S. pneumoniae appears to be on the increase in Turkey while overall beta-lactamase production in H. influenzae remains relatively low. To adequately monitor the spread of drug-resistant phenotypes among these two important CARTI pathogens, ongoing collection of resistance surveillance data is required-where possible locally as resistance patterns can vary substantially between cities and institutions.
Long duration or large size of EM before therapy correlates with persistence of a positive anti- B burgdorferi IgG antibody titer after therapy. Serologic profiles do not depend on the type or duration of therapy or the clinical course thereafter. Thus, antibody testing in the follow-up of patients with EM is inappropriate for the assessment of therapeutic response.
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Short-term treatment with omeprazole does not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin or ampicillin. Our results also exclude the presence of a transfer mechanism for amoxicillin or ampicillin from the plasma to the gastric lumen.
Management of common group A streptococcus (GAS) infections remains controversial. French recommendations advocate systematic treatment of streptococcal tonsillitis after confirmation by rapid diagnostic test. Oral amoxicillin twice daily for 6 days is the first-line treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis is restricted to at-risk patients after contact with invasive GAS case. These recommendations take into consideration the prevention of complications, even if they are rare, the reduction of infectiousness and the reduction of the duration of symptoms. Different recommendations have been issued in other countries, particularly in Europe and are based on different considerations. These differences do not originate in the absence of demonstrative scientific studies but rather in societal considerations, themselves guided by the history of each different health system (and also judicial system). This is probably necessary to obtain physicians and public support. The French attitude reflects these considerations. However, its lack of enforcement needs to question about its origins.
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E. coli strains were quantified in faecal samples obtained at regular intervals from an infant followed from birth to 12 months of age and their resistance profiles were determined. beta-Lactamases were identified by isoelectric focusing and genes by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by restriction fragment analysis and Southern-blot hybridization, and tested for conjugative transfer.
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The response rate was 29.1 % (407 reports). Drug combinations, especially amoxicillin plus metronidazole, were prescribed most frequently (32.8 %) with an increase of 7.4 % during the past decade, followed by clindamycin (29.3 %). Amoxicillin monotherapy was used unexpectedly frequently (17.0 %) and doxycycline (2.8 %) very infrequently. Then, 24.7 % prescribed antibiotics prior to mechanical therapy, while most dentists followed the recommended sequence. The use of local antimicrobials increased by 6.2 % and of microbial diagnostics by 20.8 %.
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We studied 247 adult patients with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia occurring from 1997 to 2001. The following data were recorded from each patient: socio-demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, clinical presentation, initial severity of pneumonia, initial and subsequent antimicrobial therapy, in-hospital complications, hospital mortality and length of hospital stay. Multivariate analysis was done to identify variables associated with the development of pneumonia caused by a non-susceptible strain.