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This is the first report combining N. gonorrhoeae antibiotic susceptibility testing with molecular typing by using NG-MAST in Japan. Although a large diversity in NG-MAST was identified, based on comparisons with the international data, the ST1407 with a multidrug-resistant phenotype currently seems to be circulating worldwide.
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We collected data from 1716 patients with acute pharyngotonsillitis. Antibiotics were prescribed in 80.9 %, mainly according to empirical criteria. The most commonly used antibiotics were amoxicillin (36 %), amoxicillin-clavulanate (22.5 %), cefixime (6.6 %), azithromycin (5.8 %) and cefuroxime (5.2 %). A total of 39.5 % of the patients were aged less than 3 years, of which 75.9 % were treated empirically. Of the prescribed treatments, 22.8 % were considered as the treatment of choice; 22.4 % as alternatives and 54.8 % as inappropriate.
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AMR testing data from gonorrhea cases were combined with demographic and risk behavior information collected through surveillance to describe trends and sequential changes to treatment guidelines.
Fundamental and clinical studies on cefixime (CFIX), a new oral cephem antibiotic, were carried out in the pediatric field. The results were as follows: Serum concentrations and urinary recovery rates were determined after oral administration of CFIX at doses of 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg in 2 cases each (4 cases in total). The mean serum concentrations of CFIX were 0.52 and 0.58 micrograms/ml at 2 hours, 0.80 and 1.42 micrograms/ml at 4 hours, 0.73 and 1.36 micrograms/ml at 6 hours, 0.54 and 1.12 micrograms/ml at 8 hours, respectively. The mean peak serum concentration of CFIX was obtained at 4 hours after administration, with serum half-lives (T1/2) of 3.77 and 5.30 hours, respectively. The mean cumulative urinary recovery rates within 12 hours after administration of CFIX at doses of 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg were 8.4% and 6.8%, respectively. Antibacterial activities of CFIX against clinically isolated strains of S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae. E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae were compared with those of amoxicillin (AMPC), cefaclor (CCL), and cephalexin (CEX). It was observed that CFIX was a little less active than AMPC against S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae, but CFIX was more active than CCL and CEX. CFIX was the most active against E. coli, H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Twenty-one pediatric patients with bacterial infections (10, tonsillitis; 4, pharyngitis; and 7, urinary tract infections) were treated with CFIX at doses of 1.5-6.0 mg/kg in 2 or 3 times daily for 4-10 days. The efficacy rate was 95.2% clinically and 91.3% bacteriologically. No adverse reactions were observed. An abnormal laboratory finding (slight elevation of S-GOT and S-GPT) was observed in 1 case.
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In children with acute pyelonephritis, initial intravenous treatment for 10 days, compared with three days, does not significantly reduce the development of renal scarring.
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Salmonella strains and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were detected in 17 and 5 small ruminants in Virginia, respectively, of 287 tested. Background microflora interfered with the fecal analysis. The combination of Salmonella enzyme immunoassay (EIA) detection and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar isolation was satisfactory. Modifying enrichment to a 1:100 dilution enabled effective E. coli O157:H7 detection by EIA and isolation by sorbitol-MacConkey agar with cefixime-tellurite.
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N. gonorrhoeae isolates from FSWs in Denpasar were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline; 40.1% of the isolates were fluoroquinolone-resistant. With gonorrhea prevalence of 35% at this clinic (by nucleic acid amplified tests), ongoing surveillance for antimicrobial resistance will be needed to appropriately choose treatment for infections caused by these resistant organisms.
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Strains (n = 8) of each of E. coli O26, E. coli O111 and E. coli O157 were inoculated at ca 10-20 CFU g(-1) into minced retail meat and enriched for 6 h at 41.5 degrees C as follows: E. coli O26 in tryptone soya broth (TSB) supplemented with cefixime (50 microg l(-1)), vancomycin (40 mg l(-1)) and potassium tellurite (2.5 mg l(-1)); E. coli O111 in TSB supplemented with cefixime (50 microg l(-1)) and vancomycin (40 mg l(-1)); E. coli O157 in E. coli broth supplemented with novobiocin (20 mg l(-1)). DNA was extracted from the enriched cultures, and detected and quantified by real-time PCR using verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) and serogroup (O157 per gene; O26 fliC-fliA genes and O111 wzy gene) specific primers.
The methods outlined were found to be sensitive and specific for the routine detection of E. coli O111, O26 and O157 in minced beef.