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Our results demonstrated for first time in the studied aria, using E-test strips, the level of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae offering useful informations for clinicians in order to treat the patients with ceftrixone and spectinomycine as empirical treatment, and for other antibiotics, according with antibiogram results.
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The attainable inhibitory ratios (AR) for oral antibiotics were calculated by using literature reports of concentrations attained in respiratory secretions for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMX/CA), ofloxacin (OFL), L-ofloxacin (L-OFL), cefuroxime (CEFU), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and enoxacin (ENO), and using microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration data of these antimicrobials against the common bacterial respiratory pathogens. AR of each antibiotic against the pathogens was expressed as multiples of the MICs achieved at the respiratory site. Bacteria tested included Staphylococcus aureus, group-A and group-B streptococci, Viridans streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Brahamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Eikenella corrodens, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Legionella pneumophila. The antimicrobials with the narrowest spectrum of activity were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefuroxime which had high attainable inhibitory ratios only against Gram-positive cocci. Ofloxacin and L-oflaxacin were among the quinolones with the highest overall ARs against respiratory pathogen, including, L. pneumophila, H. influenzae, and B. catarrhalis. All agents showed no, or inadequately low ARs for P. aeruginosa.
In a group of 340 patients subjected to colorectal surgery for antimicrobial prophylaxis amoxicillin clavulanate (Augmentin) or ornidazole (Tiberal) was used, in both instances as short-term monoprophylaxis. To test the effectiveness of prophylaxis, the clinical results were evaluated, expressed by the number of infectious complications, as well as serum and tissue levels of the two preparations used for prophylaxis. In serum and tissue they reached the MIC level of the tested microbial spectrum; an inadequate level was found in all probands in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The clinical result of 4.8% infectious complications when using ornidazole and 3.2% when using amoxicillin clavulante resp. is considered as evidence of the effectiveness and correct selection of preparations and also of sufficient short-term prophylaxis.
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To evaluate whether changing antibiotic prophylaxis from quinolone to penicillin antibiotics has affected infectious complication rates in those men undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSgpb).
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Clinical prophylactic efficiency proved to be equal for the four types of antibiotic regimens.
To compare the efficacy of 3-day vs 10-day treatment with a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for children with uncomplicated urinary tract infections and to determine the role of host factors, including vesicoureteral reflux, and of bacterial virulence factors, including adhesins, in treatment outcome.
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Bolivia is not an exception to the very high resistance burden affecting many South American countries. Optimization of alternative approaches to monitor local antibiotic resistance trends in resource-limited settings is strongly encouraged to support the implementation of effective empiric treatment guidelines.
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To verify the single dose bioavailability of two oral formulations of soy isoflavones, with and without lactobacilli, in menopausal women in antibiotic therapy.
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The study was aimed to the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A prospective, multicenter, randomized study that included 112 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was performed. 58 women were randomized in group 1 (cefixime [suprax solutab] 400 mg 1 time a day, 7 days), 54 women were included in group 2 (amoxicillin/clavulanate [amoksiklav] 625 mg 3 times a day, 7 days). The average age of the patients in group 1 was 25.2 +/- 6.6; in group 2--26.6 +/- 5.8 years. Physical examination, evaluation of complaints, collection of data on adverse reactions, and bacteriological analysis of urine were performed after enrollment in the study at visit 2 (day 10 +/- 1) and 3 (day 35 +/- 2). Comparable effectiveness of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was found. Eradication of the pathogen and sustained bacteriological response were observed in 94.8 and 92.7% of women treated with cefixime, and in 98.2 and 92.5% of women treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P > 0.05). At the same time, the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with cefixime significantly higher was followed by the development of adverse reactions (13% and 1.7; respectively; P = 0.02). Seven-day courses of cefixime at a dose 400 mg 1 time a day and amoxicillin/clavulanate at a dose of 625 mg 3 times a day are high-effective treatment regimens for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women in Russia. The use of amoxicillin/clavulanate is significantly more often accompanied by the development of adverse reactions compared with cefixime.
Twenty patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery for total hip replacement received a single prophylactic intravenous dose of 2.2 g Augmentin (2 g amoxycillin + 200 mg clavulanate). Bone samples removed during the operation were saved for amoxycillin and clavulanate assay. The proportion of inorganic matter in the bone samples was determined to calculate the concentrations of the drugs in their distribution volume. The cortical and cancellous bone were penetrated to a comparable extent by both compounds yielding maximum concentrations at one hour after the end of the infusion. The mean concentrations of amoxycillin in the cortex and spongy layer were 26.0 and 18.2 mg/kg within 1 h, 23.8 and 19.8 mg/kg in the interval from 1 to 2 h after infusion, and 9.2 and 5.9 mg/kg between 2 and 5 h. The corresponding values for clavulanate were 2.3 and 1.6 mg/kg, 2.5 and 1.6 mg/kg, and 1.0 and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. No postoperative wound infections occurred in these patients.
Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is associated with antibiotic resistance. Acute otitis media (AOM) is responsible for a large proportion of antibiotics prescribed for US children. Rates of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for AOM are unknown.
Ambulatory treatment of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis is safe, effective and applicable in most patients with tolerance to oral intake and with an appropriate family environment.