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The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0%) samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%), Shigella; 6 (10.0%), E. coli; 3 (5.0%), Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%), Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%), and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%). Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.
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Surgical site infections (SSI) in orthognathic surgery are considered infrequent and without any important consequence for the final operative result. A procedure of epidemiological surveillance was implemented to determine the frequency of SSI in orthognathic surgery and to better document their risk factors.
The operative mortality rate after conventional or laparoscopic appendectomy was nil. The incidence of post-operative morbidity was 4 cases in group I and 2 cases in group II. No positive bacterial culture was obtained in 17 patients. The distribution of these patients was similar in groups I and II. Samples P1 and P2 were positive in 5 cases. Nine of 27 cases with negative P1 became positive in P2 (33%). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the appearance of the appendix. Only two patients had positive blood cultures at H1. One of them had blood cultures at H3, H4 positive for a second germ.
Tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, and metronidazole revealed poor in vitro activity against human subgingival E. faecalis clinical isolates, and would likely be ineffective therapeutic agents against these species in periodontal pockets. Among orally administered antibiotics, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin exhibited marked in vitro inhibitory activity against periodontal E. faecalis, and may be clinically useful in treatment of periodontal infections involving enterococci.
Fosfomycin showed maintained activity against ESBL-producing strains and did not present co-resistance with other antimicrobial groups.
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Group 5 drugs can contribute to effective regimens in children with XDR and pre-XDR-TB. With proper monitoring and aggressive management of adverse effects, their safety profile might be acceptable, even in long-term use.
PSF plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute suppurative thyroiditis in children. Streptococcus species are the most common pathogens in acute suppurative thyroiditis. Our results suggest that amoxicillin-clavulanate is the drug of choice for the treatment of this disease.
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There is unclear evidence that azithromycin is superior to amoxicillin or amoxyclav in treating acute LRTI. In patients with acute bronchitis of a suspected bacterial cause, azithromycin tends to be more effective in terms of lower incidence of treatment failure and adverse events than amoxicillin or amoxyclav. Future trials of high methodological quality are needed.
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Two treatments, pivmecillinam 200 mg plus pivampicillin 250 mg (Miraxid) given twice-daily and amoxycillin 250 mg plus clavulanic acid 125 mg (Augmentin) given three times daily were compared in two parallel groups of 388 general practice patients with acute bronchitis or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Patients with acute bronchitis (140 on Miraxid, 144 on Augmentin) received a 7-day course of treatment and those with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (55 on Miraxid, 49 on Augmentin) a 10-day course of treatment. Both treatments were equally effective, with 99 (71%) patients with acute bronchitis being successfully treated with Miraxid and 107 (74%) with Augmentin. In acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, Miraxid was successful in 29 (53%) patients and Augmentin in 24 (49%) patients. Side-effects were reported by 26 (12%) of patients in both treatment groups. This single blind multicentre general practice study comparing twice-daily Miraxid with 3 times daily Augmentin demonstrated that both treatments were equally effective clinically and equally well tolerated.
In in vitro studies we evaluated the susceptibilities of beta-lactamase-producing and -nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae and compared them with those of ampicillin-susceptible strains. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftibuten, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefixime, and cefotaxime were evaluated by broth microdilution tests and disk diffusion tests. The disk diffusion tests accurately categorized beta-lactamase-producing strains and ampicillin-susceptible strains as being susceptible to the study drugs other than ampicillin. Ampicillin-resistant, beta-lactamase-nonproducing strains were relatively resistant to all seven study drugs, but the disk diffusion test did not always predict that resistance. The clinical relevance of the decreased susceptibility to various agents remains unclear, but to be conservative, all ampicillin-resistant, beta-lactamase-nonproducing strains might be assumed to be resistant to other beta-lactams. After excluding that small group of isolates, reliable susceptibility test results were obtained with lots of Haemophilus Test Medium that met quality assurance criteria.
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All patients diagnosed with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis based on abdominal computed tomography findings during a 2-year period were prospectively included. Patients with vomiting, severe comorbidities, or without an appropriate family environment were excluded. Ambulatory treatment consisted of oral antibiotics for 1 week (amoxicillin-clavulanic 1 g t.i.d. or ciprofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d. plus metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d. in patients with penicillin allergy). A clear liquid diet for the first 2 days and pain control with oral acetaminophen 1 g t.i.d. were also recommended.
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A total of 117 strains were isolated from 111 hospitalized children. There were 102 cases (91.9%) of respiratory infection and 9 cases (8.1%) of other diseases. The positive rates of Hi in children with bronchopneumonia or pneumonia (50.8%, 30/59) and in children with acute laryngotracheobronchitis (50.0%, 2/4) were relatively high, followed by in children with capillary bronchitis (34.6%, 9/26), in children with acute bronchitis (24.2%, 32/132), in children with herpangina (19.0%, 4/21), in children with asthmatoid bronchitis (17.9%, 5/28), in children with acute upper respiratory tract infection (11.8%, 9/76), in children with acute tonsillitis (8.2%, 7/85), and in children with neonatal pneumonia (5.6%, 3/54). There were significant differences in the rates of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate (15% vs 23%; P=0.010) and chloramphenicol (25% vs 8%; P=0.015) between the two survey years. The frequencice of β-lactamase-nonproducing-ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains and β-lactamase-producing-amoxicilli/clavulanate-resistant (BLPACR) strains increased from 12% to 21% and from 13% to 19% respectively during the two survey years (P>0.05).