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This study has evaluated an enrichment and four subculture procedures for detection of Escherichia coli O157 in raw meat products. The combination of enrichment in modified tryptone broth incubated at 42 degrees C for 6 h, followed by immunomagnetic separation and subculture on to cefixime, tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar was the most sensitive and selective procedure. Traditional subculture using 10 microliters and 100 microliters inocula and culture of centrifuged deposits were less satisfactory. A most probable number method was used to enumerate E. coli O157 in naturally contaminated samples associated with human cases. The results indicated that the samples contained < 0.3 to 2300 cfu g-1 of E. coli O157 which confirms that the infective dose for this organism is low.
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One hundred consecutive patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were treated with 800 mg of cefixime. Follow-up evaluation was obtained for 73 patients, and at that time 71 of the 73 had negative culture results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Minimal adverse side effects were reported. Cefixime 800 mg appears to be an excellent treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhea.
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A "case" was defined as a child with verocytotoxin producing E coli O157 isolated from faeces, or a history of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and antibodies to E coli O157 lipopolysaccharide, during the period 10 August to 30 September 1995.
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The drug susceptibility pattern of klebsiella species and Escherichia coli to cephalosporins was examined in the year 2004 and 2005. A total of 180 klebsiella and 220 E coli in 2004 and 95 klebsiella and 210. E coli in the year 2005, isolated from various clinical specimens were studied. Resistance rates among the klebsiella species, ranged from 50.00%-86.36% and 42.10%-84.21% in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Resistance rates among E coli ranged from 46.66%-90.8% and 50.0%-86.66% in 2004 and 2005 respectively. In the year 2005 resistance to cefixime and cefpodoxime significantly increased. Resistance marginally increased to cephalexin, cefuroxime and ceftazidime. Resistance to cefotaxime was considerably low (42.10%) in 2005 compared to 62.96% in 2004. The study highlights the importance of exercising caution in the choice of empirical therapy. It also points towards the need for regular monitoring of resistance pattern in the hospital and temporary withholding of the antibiotic with high resistance so as to prevent the spread of multidrug resistant strains in the hospital and the community.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitutes a serious threat to public health and necessitates the discovery of new types of antimicrobial agents. Among the 18 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae with susceptible to spectinomycin, ceftriaxone and cefixime, 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, while 2 isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and another was penicillin intermediate isolate. Significant differences between laboratory strain and multidrug resistant strains were revealed by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling and bioinformatics examination using the MALDI BioTyper software. However, Maldi Biotyper was not successfully separated ciprofloxacin-penicillin resistance and ciprofloxacin-tetracycline resistance from ciprofloxacin-penicillin-tetracycline resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates. BmKn2 is a basic, alpha-helical peptide with no disulfide-bridge venom peptides that was first isolated from Buthus martensii Kasch. A panel of BmKn2 scorpion venom peptide and its derivatives of varying length and characteristics were synthesized chemically and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates. Synthetic BmKn2 displayed potent activity against 18 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae with MIC50 values of 6.9-27.6 μM. BmKn2 exerted its antibacterial activity via a bactericidal mechanism. Cyclic BmKn1 did not show antigonococcal activity. Decreasing the cationicity and helix percentage at the C-terminus of BmKn2 reduced the potency against N. gonorrhoeae. Taken together, the BmKn1 peptide can be developed as a topical therapeutic agent for treating multidrug-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae infections.
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To investigate the natural susceptibility to 71 antimicrobial agents of 103 Listeria strains belonging to all known Listeria species (L. monocytogenes (N = 21), L. innocua (N = 21), L. seeligeri (N = 21), L. ivanovii (N = 19), L. welshimeri (N = 11), and L. grayi (N = 10)).
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Mosaic penA XXXIV had a high positive predictive value for cef(RS). We found that two of the 118 cef(RS) isolates lacked a mosaic penA allele, and rechecking showed that these two were susceptible to cefixime. Of the 116 remaining cef(RS) isolates, 114 (98%) fell into two distinct lineages that have independently acquired mosaic penA allele XXXIV. A major lineage of cef(RS) strains spread eastward, predominantly through a sexual network of men who have sex with men. Eight of nine inferred transitions between sexual networks were introductions from men who have sex with men into the heterosexual population.
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The endoscopic appearance of the duodenum is fundamental for the suspicion of the disease. The initial parenteral treatment may consist of ceftriaxone and try to avoid using streptomycine because of its toxicity, followed by oral trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazol. As an alternative to the latter, cefixime is usually effective. The typical findings of the duodenum biopsy can persist several months or years after finishing the treatment, decreasing the value of endoscopic pursuit after treatment.
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Multicenter study was conducted between January and December 2011 in 12 hospitals in China.
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Facility surveys assessed infrastructure and resource availability, and standardised patient (SP) assessments evaluated quality of STI care in 50 public clinics in nine provinces in South Africa. The primary outcome was the proportion of SPs receiving essential STI care, defined as: offered an HIV test, condoms, partner notification counselling and correct syndromic treatment. Weighted proportions were generated, and SP findings were compared by gender using χ(2) tests with Rao-Scott correction.
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The number of biopsy cores and prebiopsy rectal preparation use were statistically significant risk factors for infectious complications after prostate biopsy in our study. Thus, we recommend a rectal preparation before prostate biopsy to minimize the risk of infectious complications.