normax 400mg dosage
The susceptibility to ciprofloxacin of 7288 Escherichia coli clinical isolates from 5667 patients was determined over a 4-year period (1995-1998). Information about the patients' age, sex, specimen type, date, origin and susceptibility to Escherichia coli isolates was studied, and the c2 test was used for statistical comparison. Overall, 1003 (17.70%) patients out of the 5667 included in the study presented ciprofloxacin resistance. The annual resistance observed over this 4-year period was not considered statistically significant. The resistant isolates were more frequent among men, in urine specimens and in outpatients, and increased with different age groups. The average age of patients with resistant isolates was 61.29 years (SD 21.56) and that of patients with susceptible isolates was 39.76 years (SD 27.41). A similar rate of resistance was observed among outpatients from health centers and those from hospital outpatient services. The higher resistance rates were found in outpatients from the urology department. The resistance to other fluoroquinolones remained the same and was not significant for norfloxacin; it increased starting from 1997 for pefloxacin at the expense of ciprofloxacin-sensitive isolates.
This study is a follow-up to a previous investigation of post-renal transplant UTIs, which led to changes in the antibacterial agents used for prophylaxis and its duration. In this retrospective study of the medical records of 86 RTRs, the incidence, risk factors, causative bacteria, and duration prophylaxis were investigated.
normax 50 mg
Many antibiotics have been shown to have adverse effects on spermatogenesis. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) flow cytometry of testicular aspirate has been shown to be an effective method of quantitatively evaluating testicular function. To assess this problem, DNA flow cytometry of testicular aspirate was performed on 8 groups of rats, each of which received antibiotics via daily gavage for 10 days. Aspirations were performed on days 0, 11 and 56. Data thus obtained were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Antibiotics studies included ciprofloxacin 15 mg./kg./day, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) 20 mg./kg./day (with trimethoprim (TMP) 4 mg./kg./day), nitrofurantoin 7 mg./kg./day, ofloxacin 10 mg./kg./day, lomefloxacin 6 mg./kg./day, doxycycline 3 mg./kg./day and norfloxacin 10 mg./kg./day. One group received the same SMX/TMP dose, together with folate 0.014 mg./kg./day. A statistically significant change in aspirate content on day 11 as compared with baseline existed in groups receiving TMP/SMX (p = 0.00025), nitrofurantoin (p = 0.0000043), ofloxacin (p = 0.000075) and doxycycline (p = 4.89 X 10(-9). Control rats and the group receiving TMP/SMX with folate showed no significant change. On day 56 the abnormality persisted in groups TMP/SMX (p = 0.042), nitrofurantoin (p = 0.001), ofloxacin (p = 0.036) and doxycycline (p = 0.003). Controls and groups receiving ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin continued to show no statistically significant difference from baseline on day 56. These data suggest that SMX/TMP, nitrofurantoin, ofloxacin and doxycycline significantly alter spermatogenesis. Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin had no apparent effect on spermatogenesis as measured by DNA flow cytometry.
This paper investigated the degradation kinetics of norfloxacin in a soil, and its effects on soil respiration and nitrogen transformation under different conditions. Compared to the sterile control, the degradation rates of norfloxacin in the non-sterile soil were greatly enhanced, suggesting that microorganisms played a major role in the degradation. Accelerated degradation for norfloxacin in the soil was observed with decreasing concentrations (30 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg) with its half-life decreasing from 62 days to 31 days. Amending swine manure into the soil and increasing the soil moisture level enhanced the biological degradation of norfloxacin. No obvious inhibition of norfloxacin on soil respiration was observed in the soil, while only slight effect on nitrogen transformation was found. The results suggested that norfloxacin at the reported environmental concentrations (<100 mg/kg) would have little effect on microbial activity and functions in the soils.
normax antibiotics for urinary
Forty six patients received a topical application of a 0.3% norfloxacin (Zoroxin; MSD, Austria) solution into the lower fornix at different time intervals and frequencies before undergoing planned extracapsular cataract extraction. Aqueous humor was sampled at the beginning of surgery and assayed for the level of the antibiotic with high performance liquid chromatography. The highest aqueous humor level observed 30 min after the administration of the last drop in four patients who received five drops of norfloxacin into the lower fornix was 660.25 +/- 378.2 ng/ml. These concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration of norfloxacin for 90% (MIC90) of most of the gram-negative microorganisms, but below the MIC90 of most of the staphylococci (coagulase negative Staph. and Staphylococcus aureus range between 0.25-1 mg/ml).
normax tablets uses
To elucidate photosensitization potentials of new quinolone antibacterial agents, production of active oxygen species and peroxidation of squalene after ultraviolet A exposure were investigated. Production of singlet oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide was estimated by bleaching of p-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline. Lomefloxacin showed the greatest ability to produce active oxygen species, and this ability was reduced by the addition of the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide. Ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin also had strong activity. Photosensitized peroxidation of squalene was evaluated by measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Lomefloxacin was the strongest sensitizer, followed by fleroxacin and ciprofloxacin. These results suggest that certain new quinolones are involved in phototoxicity via the mechanism of active oxygen species.
normax tablets usp
The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA SME) of norfloxacin and netilmicin on two clinical strains--Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis was investigated. After both PAE and PA SME of antibiotics were studied, we determined their effect on the induction of a prophage in the lysogenic S. typhimurium and on Congo red binding by both serovars, as an indicator of invasive ability in vitro. The PAE was induced by 2.MIC and 4.MIC of norfloxacin and netilmicin for 0.5 h. Norfloxacin induced a longer lasting PAE on both Salmonella serovars as compared to netilmicin. Supra-subinhibitory concentrations (PA SMEs) delayed regrowth of tested strains. The PA SMEs of norfloxacin as well as of netilmicin (except 2.MIC + 0.1.MIC concentration) did not allow regrowth of S. enteritidis. The prophage-inductive ability of norfloxacin was more expressive after PA SMEs than PAE. The PA SMEs of netilmicin caused loss of Congo red binding by S. typhimurium cells and decreased this binding by S. enteritidis cells.
From 1999 to 2009, a total of 10,470 clinical enterococcal strains from patients in Rajavithi Hospital were isolated. Of these, 201 (1.9%) vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) including 199 (99.0%) Enterococcus faecium and 2 (1.00%) Enterococcus faecalis were found. The incidence of VRE was 1.8% in 1999, 3.3% in 2000, 5.1% in 2001, 1.0% in 2002, 0.0% in 2003 and 2004, 1.1% in 2005, 4.7% in 2006, 1.9% in 2007, 2.2% in 2008 and 0.9% in 2009. Seventy-one VRE isolates were classified to VanA phenotype (69 VanA E. faecium and 2 VanA E. faecalis) and 130 were classified to VanB phenotype (VanB E. faecium). The rate of inpatient departments (IPD)-associated VRE (199 (99.0%) VRE isolates) was significantly greater than the incidence of outpatient departments (OPD)-VRE (2 (1.0%) VRE isolates). VRE were found in medical (33.7%), ICUs (15.6%) and surgical (15.1%) wards. VRE were mostly found in urine, 64.2%, following in pus, blood, genital and sputum specimens, 21.9%, 9.0%, 3.5% and 1.4%, respectively. VRE, especially vancomycin resistant E. faecium, were multidrug-resistant (resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin). All strains of VRE were fully susceptible to linezolid.
normax norfloxacin tablets
This assay method was valid within a wide range of plasma concentrations and may be proposed as a suitable method for pharmacokinetic studies, therapeutic drug monitoring implementation, and routine clinical applications, especially for some populations of patients who receive a combination of these drugs.