norfloxacin renal dose
Saccharinates salts of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and enrofloxacin were obtained as pure crystalline anhydrous solids with sweet taste. The products were characterized by one- ((13)C) and two-dimensional ((1)H-(13)C) dimensions solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and infrared spectroscopy showing ionic interactions between the saccharine amide and the fluoroquinolone piperazine. Several intermolecular bindings were also identified. Thermal behavior and powder X-ray diffraction provided complementary evidences of salt formation. The series of products showed improved properties with respect to water solubility. A solubility model was developed. These salts would be a good way forward to developing more suitable formulations of these APIs.
norfloxacin tablet side effects
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of levofloxacin (LVX) in comparison to nalidixic acid (NAL), ofloxacin (OFX), norfloxacin (NOR), amoxicillin (AMX), cefixime (CFM), cotrimoxazole (SXT) and nitrofurantoin (FT), against 402 strains recently isolated from urine specimens in outpatient women suffering from lower urinary tract infections for which short-term treatment was not indicated. MICs were determined by the agar dilution method on Mueller-Hinton medium (Bio-Rad) according to the recommendations of the Comite de l'Antibiogramme de la Societe Francaise de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). Strains were classified as susceptible (S), intermediate (I) or resistant (R) according to the CA-SFM recommended breakpoints. Quality control was carried out using three reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. For E. coli, the most prevalent species (345 isolates: 85.3%), susceptibilities were as follows: AMX: 60.6%, CFM: 99.1%, NAL: 94.8%, NOR: 97.4%, OFX: 97.4%, LVX: 97.4%, SXT: 84.5%, FT: 98%. This study confirms the good in vitro activity of LVX, OFX, and CFM against strains isolated from urinary tract infections in the community and particularly against E. coli, which is by far the most prevalent pathogen, 90% of strains, with more than 97% of strains being susceptible.
norfloxacin helcor 400 mg
Gastroenteritis caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli and shigella resistant to a number of drugs was a major problem that frequently interfered with the duties of U.S. troops during Operation Desert Shield.
norfloxacin 160 mg
Patients 12 years of age or older with a history of acute diarrhea lasting 5 or fewer days. Eighty-five percent of patients (511/598) were evaluable for efficacy. Of these evaluable patients, 70% had traveled abroad within the previous 6 weeks.
norfloxacin tablet use
Herein two different methods are proposed for the determination of 10 quinolones (enoxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid and flumequine) in chicken muscle and egg yolk. Two different HPLC systems were used comparatively and the respective methods were fully validated. The analytes were initially extracted from chicken muscle and egg yolk and purified by a solid phase extraction using LiChrolut RP-18 cartridges. Recoveries varied between 96.6 and 102.8% for chicken muscle and 96.4-102.8% for egg yolk. HPLC separation was performed at 25 degrees C using an ODS-3 PerfectSilTarget (250 mmx4 mm) 5 microm analytical column (MZ-Analysentechnik, Germany). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-ACN-CH3OH, delivered by a gradient program, different for each method. In both cases caffeine was used as internal standard at the concentration of 7.5 ng/microL. Column effluent was monitored using a photodiode array detector, set at 275 and 255 nm. The developed methods were validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The LODs for chicken muscle varied between 5.0 and 12.0 microg/kg and for egg yolk was 8.0 microg/kg for all examined analytes.
norfloxacin 1600 mg
The MICs of norfloxacin for three variants containing a single GyrA mutation were 16-fold higher than that for their parent isolates. A variant showing reduced norfloxacin accumulation in the cells, without mutations in the GyrA or ParC proteins, was also less sensitive to norfloxacin, with a 16-fold increase in the MIC, compared with the parent strain. The MIC of norfloxacin for a variant which contained a single GyrA mutation with reduced norfloxacin accumulation in the cells was 128-fold higher than for the parent strain. A variant containing mutations in both GyrA and ParC proteins with reduced accumulation of norfloxacin in the cells showed a 256-fold increase in the norfloxacin MIC compared with the parent strain. There was no variant containing a ParC mutation without the simultaneous presence of a GyrA mutation.
norfloxacin 400 mg tablet
A 40-year-old man presented with a severe skin reaction, which was diagnosed as TEN. He had received norfloxacin 800 mg/day over a 14-day period for prostatitis and, 10 days after finishing the treatment regimen, he developed cutaneous and mucous lesions typical of TEN. After a prolonged hospitalization and treatment with oral prednisolone therapy, fluid resuscitation, and wound dressing, the man recovered.
norfloxacin 200 mg dosage
Thirty-two patients undergoing cataract extraction received either 0.3% ciprofloxacin, 0.3% norfloxacin, or 0.3% ofloxacin topical drops. The patients were given two drops 90 minutes preoperatively and two drops 30 minutes preoperatively. At the time of surgery, 0.1 ml aqueous fluid was aspirated from the anterior chamber and immediately stored at -70 degrees C.
co norfloxacin 400 mg
An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of clopidol, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfametoxydiazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin in chickens by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) has been developed and validated. The samples were homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After defatted with high speed frozen centrifugation, the supernatant solution was evaporated and the residue was dissolved with the mobile phase and defatted with n-hexane. It was then analyzed with UPLC-MS/MS. The limit of detection of this method was 0.1 microg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 microg/kg. The average recoveries (spiked at the levels of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 microg/kg) ranged from 81.5% to 97.6%, with the relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 8.9%. The results demonstrated that the method is simple, accurate and suitable for the identification and quantification of these drug residues in chickens.
norfloxacin dosage for uti
We designed a prospective study to evaluate the incidence of Escherichia coli in stools at admission in patients with cirrhosis that had previously received norfloxacin as primary or secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (group I, n = 28) vs those who did not (group II, n = 55).
norfloxacin brand name
A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method followed by separation with high-performance liquid chromatography and subsequent UV detection was developed for the determination of norfloxacin and enrofloxacin. The simple and sensitive preconcentration technique uses 280 nm wavelength in mobile phase of citrate buffer (0.01 M), pH 3.8, prepared in water (A) and acetonitrile (B), with composition of the mobile phase A:B, 40:60, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. A C18 reversed-phase analytical column (5 microm) was selected as separation medium for the technique. To obtain optimum extraction efficiency, several parameters relating to SPME were investigated. The method was linear over the range of 10-100 ng/mL for norfloxacin and enrofloxacin with a correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.9972 and 0.9980 for norfloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively. Using the SPME method, the detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) are 0.17 and 0.12 ng/mL for norfloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively.
lexinor norfloxacin 400 mg
In recent years, antibiotics have been used widely in intensive shrimp culture and this may lead to their contamination of the environment. Surveys on residues of trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), norfloxacin (NFXC) and oxolinic acid (OXLA) in water and mud in shrimp ponds in mangrove areas were conducted in the north as well as in south of Viet Nam in July and August, 2002. The results show that these antibiotics are found in all samples in both shrimp ponds and surrounding canals. The highest concentrations of TMP, SMX, NFXC and OXLA are 1.04, 2.39, 6.06, and 2.50 ppm in water samples; and 734.61, 820.49, 2615.96, 426.31 ppm (based on wet mud weight), respectively. The comparison of antibiotics residues between study sites and types of shrimp ponds will be discussed in this paper. The results also suggest that antibiotics residues may cause harmful effect on ecosystems in the study sites.