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Giardia lamblia is a primitive eukaryotic microorganism that derives its metabolic energy primarily from anaerobic glycolysis. In trophozoites, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA with the transfer of a pair of electrons to ferredoxin, which can then reduce metronidazole and activate it into a potent antigiardiasis agent. It is unclear, however, whether this anaerobic disposal of electrons is essential for the energy metabolism in Giardia. In the present study, cDNAs encoding hammerhead ribozyme flanked with various lengths of antisense PFOR RNA were cloned into a viral vector pC631pac derived from the genome of giardiavirus (GLV). RNA transcripts of the plasmids showed high cleavage activities on PFOR mRNA in vitro. They were introduced into GLV-infected G. lamblia trophozoites by electroporation and stablized in the transfected cells via serial passages under puromycin selection. PFOR mRNA and enzyme activity in the transfected cells were decreased by 46-60% with the ribozyme PRzS flanked with 20 nt PFOR antisense RNA on each arm and by 69-80% with the ribozyme PRzL flanked with 600 and 1500 nt PFOR antisense RNA. PRzS without the inserted ribozyme or ribozyme flanked with alcohol dehydrogenase E antisense RNA showed no effect on PFOR mRNA and activity. The ribozyme-transfected cells demonstrated significantly enhanced resistance to metronidazole and grew equally well under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. In contrast, the wild-type cells grew slightly better anaerobically than the transfectants but did not grow at all in aerobic conditions. Thus, the reduced PFOR expression enables Giardia to grow under molecular oxygen and the presence of PFOR enhances the anaerobic growth of Giardia with an increased susceptibility towards metronidazole. In addition, this study demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a viral RNA vector to express a ribozyme targeted at a specific mRNA in G. lamblia to reduce the expression of a specific gene.
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To summarize the efficacy, safety and adherence of first-line quadruple H. pylori therapies in adults.
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Three (1.8%) of the 167 women enrolled were excluded because of vomiting after taking metronidazole, and 66 (40%) of the 164 remaining subjects did not return for the follow-up visit. No associations were found between the proportion of subjects lost to follow-up and the characteristics of these subjects across assignment groups. The treatment success ratio was highest in subjects who received the 1.5-g dose (23, 85%), followed by the 2-g (16, 84%), 1-g (18, 62%), and the 0.5-g dose (8, 35%).
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common infectious diseases among sexually active women and is associated with the increased acquisition of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of a non-antibiotic sucrose gel against an antibiotic metronidazole gel for the treatment of BV.
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The activities of the pristinamycin and its two components (RP 12536 and RP 27404) were investigated using the reference agar dilution method M11A3, on 175 anaerobic strains in comparison with that of erythromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, amoxycillin either alone or combined with clavulanic acid, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotetan and cefotaxime. beta-lactamase production was detected for all the 55 B. fragilis group strains and 8/12 Prevotella and 2/18 Fusobacterium strains, respectively. On the whole anaerobes, resistance rates (%) were respectively: RP 27404 (69), RP 12536 (64), pristinamycin (5) erythromycin (31), clindamycin (17), metronidazole (7) amoxycillin (24), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (2), piperacillin (7), cefoxitin (14), cefotetan (21) and cefotaxime (27). RP 27404 and 12536 had low activities on anaerobes but acted synergistically as pristinamycin. The greatest anti-anaerobic potencies were obtained with amoxycillin-clavulanic acid combination, pristinamycin, metronidazole and piperacillin. As resistance was not found for pristinamycin among Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Gram+ rods and Peptostreptococcus, this streptogramin may be an appropriate agent for the treatment of periodontitis, pulmonary, ENT, gynecologic and soft tissue infections where these anaerobes are frequently involved.
Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is limited primarily to either metronidazole or vancomycin. We compared vancomycin and a novel glycolipodepsipeptide, ramoplanin, in both hamster and in vitro gut models of clindamycin-induced CDI.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibiotic resistance is the main factor affecting the efficacy of the current eradicating therapies. The aim of this editorial is to report on the recent information about the mechanisms accounting for the resistance to the different antibiotics currently utilized in H. pylori eradicating treatments. Different mechanisms of resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, quinolones, amoxicillin and tetracycline are accurately detailed (point mutations, redox intracellular potential, pump efflux systems, membrane permeability) on the basis of the most recent data available from the literature. The next hope for the future is that by improving the knowledge of resistance mechanisms, the elaboration of rational and efficacious associations for the treatment of the infection will be possible. Another auspicious progress might be the possibility of a cheap, feasible and reliable laboratory test to predict the outcome of a therapeutic scheme.
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Capillary zone electrophoresis was employed for the determination of metronidazole using end-column amperometric detection with a gold microelectrode at a constant potential of -0.52V vs. saturated calomel electrode. To overcome interference of oxygen in the solution, a deaeration injector and a deaeration protector at the detection cell were used. The optimum conditions of separation and detection are 1.0 x 10(-3) mol/L potassium dihydrogen citrate (KH2C6H5O7) for the buffer solution, 20 kV for the separation voltage, and 5 kV and 10 S for injection voltage and injection time, respectively. The limit of detection is 6.0 x 10(7) mol/L or 0.78 fmole (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation is 3.9% for the electrophoretic peak current. The method was applied to the determination of metronidazole in human urine.
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39 099 cases aged between 5 and 95 years old (mean as 48.42 years) were involved during January 2010 to December, 2013 for this study. Sex ratio was 1 : 0.95. Yearly distribution of the number of cases were 5 031, 6 709, 11 902 and 15 457 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Gastric mucosal specimens were collected and H. pylori strains were isolated and cultured in the same platform in Zhiyuan Medical Inspection Institute of Hangzhou. Resistance tests of all the H. pylori isolates were performed to 6 commonly used antibiotics:metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, levofloxacin and furazolidone with the agar dilution method. The antibiotic resistance rates of H. pylori strains isolated during year 2010-2013 and the changing trends were analyzed.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) screening and eradication may reduce the incidence of gastric cancer, AND AIMS: peptic ulcer, and ulcer complications, and it may reduce symptoms in a small proportion of individuals with functional dyspepsia. This study aimed to assess the effect of community H. pylori screening and treatment on the prevalence of dyspepsia, and as secondary outcomes, the effect on dyspepsia-related health-care consumption and quality of life over 5 yr.