A total of 52 strains were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate by disk diffusion method in a Chinese tertiary hospital from July 2011 to December 2011. Among these isolates, 2 isolates possessed a phenotype consistent with production of inhibitor-resistant temoniera (TEM) (IRT) β-lactamase, and the TEM-type gene was cloned into strains of Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Both had no blaTEM mutations and were identified as TEM-1 β-lactamase producers. As a result, no IRT β-lactamase was detected. Multiplex PCR detected most of these strains produced TEM-1 enzymes, and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and oxacillinase-1 β-lactamases are important mechanisms of resistance as well.
Our results suggest that dermatologists should consider AANS when diagnosing an alopecic nodule on the scalp.
Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh.
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The antibacterial effect of amoxicillin-clavulanate in two formulations, pharmacokinetically enhanced 16:1 amoxicillin-clavulanate twice a day (b.i.d.) and standard 7:1 amoxicillin-clavulanate b.i.d., were studied in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model of infection. Five strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and two of Haemophilus influenzae, all associated with raised MICs (2 to 8 mg/liter), were used. The antibacterial effect was measured over 24 h by the area under the bacterial kill curve (AUBKC) and the log change in viable count at 24 h (Delta24). A high 10(8) CFU/ml and low 10(6) CFU/ml initial inocula were used. Employing the Delta24 effect measure, the time above MIC (T>MIC) 50% maximum effect (EC(50)) for S. pneumoniae was in the range 21 to 28% with an 80% maximal response of 41 to 51%, for the AUBKC measure, the value was 26 to 39%, irrespective of inoculum. For H. influenzae, the T>MIC EC(50) was 28 to 37%, and the 80% maximum response was 32 to 48% for the Delta24 measure and 20 to 48% for AUBKC. The maximum response occurred at a T>MIC of 50 to 60% for both species and inocula. The S. pneumoniae data were analyzed by analysis of variance to assess the effect of inoculum, formulation, and MIC on antibacterial effect. Standard and enhanced formulations had different effects depending on MIC, with the standard formulation less effective at higher amoxicillin-clavulanate MICs. This is explained by the greater T>MICs of the enhanced formulation. Although resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate by conventional breakpoints, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains for which MICs are 2 or 4 mg/liter may well respond to therapy with pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation amoxicillin-clavulanate.
To analyse clinical characteristics of endocarditis for the last 10 years, treatment difficulties and how to overcome them.
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The full clinical manifestations of complications due to odontogenic foci are rarely seen in daily dental practice and can take a clinically foudroyant course of development in young people owing to anatomic conditions, as demonstrated in this clinical case in a 12-year-old girl. Endodontic treatment of the first right upper molar was started owing to increasing toothache and swelling of fossa canina and the periorbital region. During the course of treatment, the patient exhibited an acute increase in orbital inflammation, which required immediate surgical intervention with postsurgical intravenous antibiotic administration. This case should serve to emphasize the crucial requirement for intensive attention to orbital symptoms after dental procedures.
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Skin testing with AMX and AMX-C is mandatory in patients with immediate allergy to these drugs. Failure to perform it may result in a false-negative ST jeopardizing these patients with anaphylactic reactions during a hazardous OCT.
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Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin ® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05.
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All adult patients who presented to Sappasithiprasong Hospital (Ubon Ratchathani, in northeast Thailand) with culture-confirmed melioidosis during the period 1986-2004 and who survived to receive oral antimicrobial therapy were observed until July 2005. Clinical factors and antimicrobial treatment of patients with recurrent disease due to relapse or reinfection, as confirmed by bacterial genotyping, were compared using a time-varying Cox proportional hazard model.