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Treatments with once-daily trovafloxacin (200 or 100 mg) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (500/125 mg three times daily) were compared in adults with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchitis. At end of treatment, 95% (113/119) of clinically evaluable patients receiving trovafloxacin 200 mg, 98% (113/115) of patients treated with trovafloxacin 100 mg and 97% (113/117) of patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were cured or improved. At study end, 91%, 87% and 88%, respectively, were cured or improved. At end of treatment, trovafloxacin 200 mg eradicated Haemophilus influenzae in 97% of patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 90% and Chlamydia pneumoniae in 100%. The respective eradication rates for trovafloxacin 100 mg were 84%, 100% and 100%; those for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 92%, 100% and 100%. At study end, trovafloxacin 200 mg totally eradicated all three pathogens. Trovafloxacin 100 mg eradicated Haemophilus influenzae in 91% of patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 100% and Chlamydia pneumoniae in 80%. Respective eradication rates for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 78%, 100% and 80%. Only 7% (10/144) of patients receiving trovafloxacin 200 mg reported treatment-related adverse events, as did 7% (10/135) of patients given trovafloxacin 100 mg and 12% (17/140) of patients given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
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Escherichia coli was identified in 56/69 (81 %) peritoneal specimens; four isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, and one other isolate was resistant to gentamicin. Anaerobes were identified in 37/69 (54 %) peritoneal specimens; two anaerobic isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and one isolate was resistant to metronidazole. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in 4/69 (6 %) peritoneal specimens, and all were susceptible to gentamicin. Streptococcal species (two Group F streptococci and three β-haemolytic streptococci) were identified in 5/69 (7 %) specimens, and all were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. Combination therapy involving amoxicillin-clavulanate and aminoglycoside is appropriate empirical treatment in 68/69 (99 %) patients. Addition of metronidazole to this regime would provide 100 % initial empirical coverage. Inadequate initial empiric antibiotic treatment and the presence of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant E. coli were independent predictors of the post-operative infectious complications observed in 14/69 (20 %) patients.
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This is the first prospective clinical trial in which patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis have been stratified by degree of underlying illness. Uncomplicated patients were randomised to levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (q.d.) for 3 days or azithromycin q.d. for 5 days. Complicated patients were randomised to levofloxacin 750 mg q.d. for 5 days or amoxicillin 875 mg/clavulanate 125 mg twice daily for 10 days. Regardless of therapy, complicated patients demonstrated lower clinical and microbiological success than uncomplicated patients. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was similar for levofloxacin and azithromycin (93.0 versus 90.1%, respectively), and levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.2 versus 81.7%, respectively). For microbiologically evaluable patients, clinical response to levofloxacin for 3 days was superior to azithromycin for 5 days (96.3 versus 87.4%, respectively), and levofloxacin for 5 days was similar to amoxicillin/clavulanate for 10 days (81.4 versus 80.9%, respectively). Microbiological eradication was superior for levofloxacin for 3 days compared with azithromycin for 5 days (93.8 versus 82.8%, respectively), and similar for levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate for 10 days (81.4 versus 79.8%, respectively). In conclusion, levofloxacin 750 mg for 3 days was comparable to azithromycin for 5 days for uncomplicated patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, while 5 days of 750 mg levofloxacin was comparable to 10 days of amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.
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95% of respondents reported they would usually or always use antibiotics. Amoxicillin was the antibiotic of choice, followed by amoxicillin/clavulanate. Cotrimoxazole was the antibiotic of choice in the case of allergy to amoxicillin. 82% of respondents recommended follow-up, with a broad range of follow-up times (24 hours to 12 weeks). Approximately half of practitioners considered 5-6 episodes of acute otitis media in a year as an appropriate threshold for referral for grommets. Most GPs had received an update on otitis media within the previous two years.
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It is concluded that most of the urinary tract infections in human are caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli.
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Trap-door fracture is frequent in childhood population. Clinical diagnosis can be difficult. However, surgical treatment should be considered before 24 hours to avoid complication as residual diplopia.
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The efficacy and safety of a once-a-day antibiotic in the treatment of sinusitis was studied. Two randomly assigned groups were treated with either once-a-day cefixime, a third generation cephalosporin, or amoxicillin three times a day. One hundred and fourteen patients were evaluated with antral punctures, microbiologic evaluation, and radiographic studies. Cultures revealed 40% gram-negative organisms, 48% gram-positive, and 12% anaerobes. The most common bacteria were Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and viridans group streptococci. Ninety-four percent of the cefixime group were cured compared with 96% of the amoxicillin group. Staphylococcus resistance was a problem in both groups, necessitating an occasional change to amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the amoxicillin group. Once-a-day antibiotics offer the potential for improved compliance in the treatment of sinusitis. Cefixime offers an additional benefit of covering beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria which are increasing in incidence and resistant to many penicillins.
Nocardia farcinica infections are rare and potentially life threatening. Herein, we describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by N. farcinica. This 13-year-old girl admitted with 1-year history of cough, intermittent fever, and recurrent hemoptysis. She was examined for multiple pulmonary nodules mimicking pulmonary metastasis that were detected with chest radiography and computed tomography of the thorax. Eventually, N. farcinica was yielded in culture of sputum and aspiration material of pulmonary nodules. No predisposing factor could be shown for Nocardia infection. Although infections caused by N. farcinica have tendency to disseminate, and are mostly resistant to antibiotics, the patient was successfully treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy followed with oral amoxicillin-clavulanate.
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Subacute childhood rhinosinusitis is a disorder commonly seen in children with allergic rhinitis. Antibiotics have been recommended as a major component of the treatment regime. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of a 3-day course of azithromycin and a 2-week course of amoxycillin/clavulanate in the treatment of subacute childhood rhinosinusitis.
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To investigate the causative bacteria and the antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps in Korea.
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In our study, the specimen culture found aerobic bacteria in 70% of cases, especially Gram-negative bacilli. Empiric antibiotherapy in acute complicated appendicitis in children should be efficient against these microorganisms.