High resistance rates to moxifloxacin among Bacteroides and Prevotella spp. were recorded, exceeding those previously reported in Europe and contraindicating its use as monotherapy for infections involving Gram-negative anaerobes without prior microbiological confirmation. For empirical usage, moxifloxacin should be combined with metronidazole in order to cover for these pathogens.
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13 patients with adult periodontitis were selected and each of them had two or more sites with probing depth > or = 4 mm, so totally 35 teeth were included in this study. After conventional therapy, the subjects were randomly divided into three groups: (1) experimental group application with MO gel, (2) standard group application with metronidazole stitus, and (3) control group application with placebo gel. Local application was performed once a week for 12 weeks. Clinical parameters including PD, PAL, GI, BOP, PLI was recorded after 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively.
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The bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation leads to high intracolonic levels of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. The respective roles of colonic mucosal cells and gut flora in the regulation of intracolonic acetaldehyde concentration are not known. Disulfiram inhibits hepatic acetaldehyde oxidation and may have an effect on colonic mucosal cells. On the other hand, metronidazole treatment leads to overgrowth of acetaldehyde-producing aerobic flora in the large intestine. The aim of this study was to characterize by means of disulfiram and metronidazole the contribution of colonic mucosal cells and intracolonic microbes to the regulation of intracolonic acetaldehyde concentration during ethanol oxidation in rats.
Triple therapy with ecabet sodium, lansoprazole and amoxicillin for 2 weeks was effective as the rescue therapy after failure of the standard clarithromycin-based regimen.
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This study compared in vitro dissolution characteristics and other quality measures of different amoxicillin, metronidazole, and zidovudine products purchased in the Americas to a comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP). These three drugs are classified as Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class I drugs with the possibility that dissolution findings might be used to document bioequivalence. All investigated zidovudine products were found to be in vitro equivalent to the CPP. Only 3 of 12 tested amoxicillin products were found to be in vitro equivalent to the CPP. None of the tested metronidazole products were in vitro equivalent to the CPP. These findings suggest but do not confirm bioinequivalence where in vitro comparisons failed, given that an in vivo blood level study might have confirmed bioequivalence. At times, identifying a CPP in one of the selected markets proved difficult. The study demonstrates that products sold across national markets may not be bioequivalent. When coupled with the challenge of identifying a CPP in different countries, the results of this study suggest the value of an international CPP as well as increased use of BCS approaches as means of either documenting bioequivalence or signaling the need for further in vivo studies. Because of increased movement of medicines across national borders, practitioners and patients would benefit from these approaches.
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That the systemic administration of drugs in horses could be identified by the detection of drug residues in hair.
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Sixteen patients with jaw biphosphonate-osteonecrosis and with exposed bone areas were subdivided into 2 treatment groups. The first group (7 patients) underwent superficial or radical surgical therapy, while the second (9 patients) underwent antibiotic treatment. A slight reduction of the necrotic areas was observed in 5 of 7 patients in the first group, whereas no change was observed in the remaining 2 patients at 22- and 24-month follow-up. A slight reduction of the necrotic areas was observed in 7 of 9 patients in the second group, whereas no change was observed in the remaining 2 patients at 5- and 24-month follow-up. The statistical analysis showed that the treatment regimen did not significantly influence the dimensional change in the exposed bone. The preliminary results seem to suggest that biphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis can be well controlled by a nonsurgical protocol consisting in long-term administration of antibiotics.
Revascularization outcomes for traumatized patients treated with the tested protocols presented similar clinical and radiographic data. However, TAP caused esthetic problem leading to tooth discoloration, which can be considered a disadvantage when compared with CHP.
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Resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) is common among Helicobacter pylori strains in many societies, and results from loss of function mutations in genes for one or more cellular nitroreductases. When functional, these enzymes convert MTZ from a harmless prodrug to mutagenic and bacteriocidal products (probably hydroxylamine-type compounds), and in the process may generate active reactive oxygen metabolites. Here we examine the protein profiles of a derivative of strain 26695 that is resistant to moderate levels of MTZ because of mutation in rdxA (HP0954), the gene for the most important of these nitroreductases. The strain was grown with and without 18 micrograms/mL of MTZ to assess whether sublethal exposure triggers an adaptive response. Bacterial lysates were subjected to two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and protein bands were identified by mass spectrometry and sequence analysis. Several proteins were decreased at least two-fold during growth with MTZ, yet the levels of various isoforms of alkylhydroperoxide reductase (AHP) (encoded by ahpC HP1563) were increased. AHP is an essential enzyme, and had been linked to resistance to oxygen toxicity in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems; we propose that the ability of an rdxA mutant strain to increase AHP abundance during exposure to MTZ is critically important in the realization of the resistance phenotype. More generally, these results highlight the potential of proteome analysis to tracing out how pathogenic bacteria cope with the challenges imposed on them by therapy or host responses to infection.
The aim of this study was to evaluate this short-term regimen in pediatric and adolescent populations.
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The aim of the study was to identify variables affecting the outcome of transanal advancement flap repair (TAFR) for perianal fistulas of cryptoglandular origin.
We report on ten documented infectious episodes caused by Capnocytophaga observed between 1994 and 1999 at the Innsbruck University Hospital.