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A 78-year-old female, who was admitted for surgery due to acute diverticulitis caused by postoperative complications and broad antibiotic therapy, developed CDI-induced colitis. Despite the introduction of metronidazole and vancomycin therapy, her clinical condition continued to deteriorate. She was transferred to the intensive care unit where FMT followed by fidaxomicin were performed because her C-reactive protein and leucocyte levels remained elevated. Further clinical improvement and the resolution of colitis was observed.
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Clostridium difficile infection is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospital patients. Pathogenic strains of C. difficile produce two protein exotoxins, toxin A and toxin B, which cause colonic mucosal injury and inflammation. Infection may be asymptomatic, cause mild diarrhea, or result in severe pseudomembranous colitis. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of C. difficile toxins in the stool. The first step in management is to discontinue the antibiotic that caused diarrhea. If diarrhea and colitis are severe or persistent, oral metronidazole is the treatment of choice. Oral vancomycin is also effective, but it is more expensive than metronidazole and its widespread use may encourage the proliferation of vancomycin-resistant nosocomial bacteria. Diarrhea and colitis usually improve within three days after a patient starts taking metronidazole or vancomycin, but 20% suffer a relapse of diarrhea when these agents are discontinued.
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Balantidium coli, a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects primates and pigs, and is the largest protozoan to infect humans, is a well-known cause of diarrhoea and dysentery in humans. Extra-intestinal disease is uncommon, however.
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Emerging data suggest instillation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is safe and potentially efficacious in the treatment of intra-abdominal abscess. To date, prospective comparative data are lacking in children. Therefore, we conducted a randomized trial comparing abscess irrigation with tPA and irrigation with saline alone.
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Primary resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was 1 and 76%, respectively. In metronidazole susceptible strains eradication rates were similar at > 90% for all treatment groups (P = 0.49). With low-level metronidazole resistance (4 microg/mL < MIC < 256 microg/mL), eradication rates were similar at >75% (P = 0.80). The major difference was found at high-level metronidazole resistance (MIC >or= 256 microg/mL) with 95%, 58% and 21% eradication in the lansoprazole, clarithromycin and tinidazole twice-daily, lansoprazole, clarithromycin and tinidazole once-daily and placebo, clarithromycin and tinidazole once-daily groups, respectively (P < 0.001).
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The routine use of antibiotics (penicillin and metronidazole) does not seem to be of value in reducing the local inflammatory swelling in venomous snakebite.
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Peptic ulcer disease patients successfully treated in 1990-1993 with 'classic' triple therapy were eligible. Patients were asked about symptoms and invited for a 13C-urea breath test or endoscopy in 1997-1998. Data on the use of anti-dyspeptic drugs were obtained from the pharmacy or general practitioner.
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Widespread overuse and inappropriate use of antimicrobial drugs continues to fuel an increase in antimicrobial resistance and leads to consequent treatment complications and increased healthcare costs. In the present study we aimed to describe antimicrobial drug consumption and predictors and to identify potential targets for antimicrobial stewardship. This was a prospective observational study conducted at adult medicine wards of tertiary care teaching hospital over the period of five months. Antimicrobial drug consumption was measured using days of therapy per 1000 patient days and defined daily dose per 1000 patient days. Additionally, predictors of multiple antimicrobial prescribing were also analyzed. Seven hundred thirty patients were screened and 550 enrolled, receiving 1,512 courses of antimicrobial therapy, mainly intravenously (66%). Most frequently prescribed agents were artesunate (13%), ceftriaxone (11%) and metronidazole (10.5%). Overall consumption was 1,533 days of therapy per 1000 patient days and was mainly attributed to antibiotics (98.3%) for empirical therapy (50%). Median days of antimicrobial drugs prescribing were 3 (inter quartile range 2-5). Most commonly consumed antimicrobials were ceftriaxone (31%, 248.8 g) and artesunate (26%, 29 g). Antimicrobials contributed to 72.5% expense of the total incurred. Multivariate analysis reveals that younger patients (≥45 years) (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% CI 1.14-2.21) were more likely and absence of comorbidities (odds ratio: 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.79) and shorter hospital stay (≥6 days)(odds ratio: 0.44, 95% CI 0.32-0.60) were associated with less likelihood of prescribing multiple antimicrobial drugs. Estimating antimicrobial drugs use by defined daily dose method will remain open to criticism because the prescribed dosage is not often in agreement with the "usual" daily dose, which depends on location of and susceptibility of pathogenic organisms and metabolic status of the patient.