Fourteen-day, proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy achieves better results than 7-day schedules. Additional data are necessary to evaluate 10-day therapies.
Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: a single-dose group given a single dose of cefmetazole just before skin incision and a 3-dose group given 2 additional doses of cefmetazole every 8 hours after the first dose just before skin incision.
Secnidazole (alpha,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol) is an antimicrobical drug, and it is particularly effective in the treatment of amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Secnidazole crystallizes as a hemihydrate, which belongs to a monoclinic system having space group P2(1)/c, with a = 12.424 A, b = 12.187 A, c = 6.662 A, and beta = 100.9 degrees. The optimized geometries and total energies of different conformers of the secnidazole molecule have been determined by the method of density functional theory (DFT). For both geometry and total energy, it has been combined with B3LYP functionals having extended basis sets 4-31G, 6-31G, and 6-311++G(d,p) for each of the three stable conformers of secnidazole. Using this optimized structure, we have calculated the infrared and Raman wavenumbers and compared them with the experimental data. The calculated wavenumbers are in an excellent agreement with the experimental values. Based on these results, we have discussed the correlation between the vibrational modes and the crystalline structure of the most stable conformer of secnidazole. A complete assignment is provided for the observed Raman and IR spectra.
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Tetanus is a potentially life threatening disease affecting nearly 50,000 to 1 million people world wide every year. Four major clinical forms of tetanus are described i.e. generalized, cephalic, localized and neonatal. Neonatal tetanus is particularly common in developing countries, due to unhygienic child birth practices, social taboos and improper immunization of pregnant mothers. Management of this disorder involves a team approach and aims at eradicating focus of infection, neutralizing the toxin, controlling spasms and dysautonomia and providing adequate ventilatory and supportive care. Metronidazole may be the preferred antibiotic although penicillin is still used frequently. Adequate wound debridement is necessary to prevent spore germination. Spasms are usually managed by sedatives like diazepam and neuromuscular blocking agents. Magnesium sulphate is an attractive substitute and may be tried if ventilatory facilities are unavailable. Use of baclofen is potentially advantageous but cannot be routinely prescribed. Dysautonomia is difficult to manage and requires therapy with benzodiazepines, morphine, magnesium sulphate, adrenergic blockers and recently tried baclofen therapy. Supportive care including ventilatory assistance are highly essential for successful outcome of the patients. It is imperative that complications are diagnosed early and managed appropriately. Immunization is extremely effective and is the key to prevention. Adequate steps and measures should be taken to increase awareness of this potentially preventable disease.
Population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) are approaches used to determine probability of target attainment (PTA) of antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine a population pharmacokinetic model (PPM) using metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole concentrations from healthy subjects and critically ill patients, and 2) to determine the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic target area under the plasma concentration (AUC)/MIC ratio >or=70 against 218 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis using MCS. Eighteen healthy subjects were randomized to 3 dosages of intravenous metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h, 1000 mg day(-1), 1500 mg day(-1)) in an open-label 3-way crossover fashion. Serial blood samples were collected over 25.5 h on the 3rd day of each study period. An additional of 8 critically ill patients received intravenous metronidazole 500 mg every 8 h. Serial blood samples were collected over 8 h after the 2nd day of dosing. Plasma metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole concentrations were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. The 834 plasma concentrations from 62 data sets were simultaneously modeled with Non-Parametric Adaptive Grid population modeling program. A 4-compartment model with a metabolite and zero-order infusion into the central compartment was used. The mean parameter vector and covariance matrix from PPM were inserted into the simulation module of ADAPT II. A 10,000-subject MCS was performed to determine the probability of PTA for a total drug AUC to MIC ratio >or=70 against 218 isolates of B. fragilis (MIC range, 0.125-2.0 mg L(-1)). Mean parameter values were CL(non-OH), 3.08 L h(-1); Vc, 35.4 L; K(OH), 0.04 h(-1); CL(OH), 2.78 L h(-1); and V(OH), 9.66 L. The regression values of the observed versus predicted concentrations (r2) of metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole were 0.972 and 0.980, respectively. The PTA for metronidazole 1500 mg day(-1) or 500 mg every 8 h (taken together) and 1000 mg day(-1) were 99.9% and 99.8%, respectively, over the reported MIC distribution range. For an MIC of 4 mg L(-1), the predicted PTA decreased to 80.0% and 28.5%, respectively. A PPM was determined by comodeling metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole concentrations from healthy subjects and critically ill patients. Based on this model, attainment of the target pharmacodynamic parameter (AUC/MIC ratio >or=70) against B. fragilis isolates is >99% when MICs are <2 mg L(-1), irrespective of the dosing interval of 24 h.
Methylmalonic and propionic aciduria (PA) are the most frequent forms of branched-chain organic acidurias. These autosomal recessive disorders result from deficient activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, respectively. Clinically, acute or chronic neurologic signs are caused by the accumulation of toxic compounds proximal to the metabolic block. Phenotype varies from severe neonatal-onset forms with high mortality and poor outcome to milder forms with a later onset. In both cases the clinical course is dominated by the risk of relapses of life-threatening episodes of metabolic decompensation and of severe organ failure. Despite improvement of treatment, the overall outcome remains disappointing with no major differences between the two diseases. The diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic compounds in body fluids as detected by organic acid analysis in urine and acylcarnitine profile in blood. Therapy is based on low-protein high-energy diet, carnitine supplementation, and metronidazole. Some patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) respond to pharmacological doses of vitamin B12. Given the poor long-term prognosis, liver transplantation has been recently attempted as an alternative therapy to conventional medical treatment to cure the underlying metabolic defect. Nevertheless, the overall experience to date does not clearly demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing further deterioration or improving survival and quality of life. The recent implementation of neonatal screening by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry has decreased early mortality and improved the short-term outcome, without changing the detection rate of both diseases in the screening population compared to clinically detected cases. However, the limited number of patients and the short duration of their follow-up do not yet permit drawing final conclusions on its effect on the long-term outcome of methylmalonic and propionic acidemia.
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Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with a single application of 100mg metronidazole in a bioadhesive vaginal tablet was found to be a valid alternative. Further research in relation to tablet shaping and optimal dose finding might increase the cure rate.
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In this retrospective study, the effects of CDI and metronidazole treatment on TAC levels in 52 adult solid organ transplant patients were investigated. The primary outcome was to determine the difference in dose-normalized TAC levels between baseline and symptom resolution in patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin. The secondary outcome was to determine the difference in dose-normalized TAC levels at baseline and CDI diagnosis.
Eradication of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from the oral cavity seems to be a prerequisite for successful therapeutic outcome in patients periodontally infected with the organism. In view of the limited number of subgingival samples obtained in recent studies one cannot conclude, however, whether eradication has actually been achieved. In the present study clinical and microbiological parameters were monitored in 10 adult patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis during successive non-surgical and adjunctive metronidazole plus amoxicillin (or ciprofloxacin) (AB) therapy. In every patient, 13 extracrevicular samples and subgingival samples from the deepest site of every tooth present were selectively cultivated for A. actinomycetemcomitans. The organism was isolated in 47 +/- 29% subgingival and 64 +/- 31% extracrevicular samples. Six weeks following subgingival scaling, A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 37 +/- 30% subgingival and 55 +/- 38% extracrevicular samples (n.s.). Three months after antibiotic therapy, the organism was recovered from only 1 patient. At baseline, 7.5 +/- 4.2% sites had a probing pocket depth (PPD) > or = 7 mm. This proportion dropped to 2.3 +/- 2.4% after scaling (p < 0.05) and to 0.3 +/- 0.4% after AB (p < 0.05). The proportion of sites with clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or = 6 mm dropped from 23.3 +/- 13.3% to 17.7 +/- 13.4% (p < 0.05) and to 16.8 +/- 14.6%. Statistical analysis revealed that the organism was strongly related, at baseline, to PPD > or = 7 mm (odds ratio 9.8, p < 0.001). Six weeks after scaling, the organism was associated with CAL > or = 6 mm (odds ratio 1.8, p = 0.02). After scaling, high counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans in excess of 10(4) CFU/ml significantly interfered with attachment gain of > or = 2 mm (odds ratio 0.24, p = 0.001). Based on the present findings, eradication of A. actinomycetemcomitans seems to be possible with adjunctive antibiotic treatment. Elimination of the organism after scaling was only weakly associated with clinical improvement.
The mean age was 50 years, 59% were women, and 14% had peptic ulcers. Concomitant and antimicrobial susceptibility-guided eradication rates were, respectively, 87% and 94% by intention-to-treat (p = .08) and 89% and 95% (p = .08) per protocol per-protocol analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 31% of patients on OACM and 15% of those on susceptibility-guided therapy (p < .05).