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Mediklin (Cleocin)
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Mediklin

Mediklin is used for treating serious infections caused by certain bacteria. Mediklin is a lincomycin antibiotic. Mediklin kills sensitive bacteria by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Other names for this medication:
Antirobe, Basocin, Chloramphenicol, Clendix, Cleocin, Climadan, Clinacin, Clinda, Clindacin, Clindacne, Clindagel, Clindahexal, Clindal, Clindamax, Clindamicina, Clindasol, Clindasome, Clindesse, Clindets, Clinium, Clinsol, Clinwas, Cutaclin, Dalacin, Dentomycin, Derma, Dermabel, Evoclin, Klimicin, Klindamicin, Klindan, Sobelin, Tidact, Ziana, Zindaclin

Similar Products:
Clinda derm, Clindagel, Clindets

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Also known as:  Cleocin.

Description

Mediklin is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections of the lungs, skin, blood, bones, joints, female reproductive system, and internal organs.

Mediklin belongs to a group of drugs called lincomycin antibiotics. These work by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This medication is available as a vaginal cream, vaginal suppository, oral capsule, and oral liquid.

This medication is also available in injectable forms to be given directly into a vein (IV) or a muscle (IM) by a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of Mediklin include nausea, vomiting, joint pain, heartburn, pain when swallowing, and white patches in the mouth.

Dosage

Take Mediklin exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Take the capsule with a full glass of water to keep it from irritating your throat.

Measure the oral liquid with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Mediklin is sometimes given as an injection into a muscle, or injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use injections at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Use a disposable needle only once. Follow any state or local laws about throwing away used needles and syringes. Use a puncture-proof "sharps" disposal container (ask your pharmacist where to get one and how to throw it away). Keep this container out of the reach of children and pets.

To make sure this medicine is not causing harmful effects, you may need frequent medical tests during treatment.

If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using Mediklin.

Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Mediklin will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Protect the injectable medicine from high heat.

Do not store the oral liquid in the refrigerator. Throw away any unused oral liquid after 2 weeks.

Overdose

In the event the patient misses a dose of Mediklin, the patient should take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for the next scheduled dose, taking another dose of Mediklin may cause an overdose which can lead to serious health complications. In this case, the missed dose should be skipped entirely to avoid an overdose potential. If an overdose of Mediklin is suspected the patient should seek immediate medical intervention and assessment. An overdose may involve symptoms such as changes in mood or behaviors, thoughts of self harm, suicidal thoughts, seizures, or convulsions.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Mediklin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Mediklin if you are allergic to Generic Mediklin components or to to tartrazine.

Be very careful if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be very careful with Generic Mediklin if it is given to children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel. Elderly patient should use Generic Mediklin with caution.

Be sure to use Generic Mediklin for the full course of treatment.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Mediklin taking suddenly.

mediklin gel bagus ga

We present a case of a 54 years old female patient after anterior wall left ventricular myocardial infarction in 2005 who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery requiring cannulation of the right internal jugular vein (IJV). She was admitted to a Department of Pulmonary Diseases with left bronchopneumonia (BPN) following 7 day treatment, with hemoptysis, dyspnoea and fevers. Duplex ultrasound (DUS) was used to diagnose flapping thrombus in the right IJV, severe thrombocytopenia and, in addition, progressing multiple infiltrates on X-ray a few days later. We empirically adjusted the treatment initiated in primary care and observed deterioration of the severe thrombocytopenia during treatment with low molecular weight heparine. We diagnosed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and, even though this indication was not included in our drug formulary, we initiated treatment with Arixtra (fondaparinux) 2.5 mg s.c. daily. Intensive conservative treatment was associated with significant clinical and laboratory improvement of the condition, significant regression of the IJV thrombus as well as the finding on X-ray. The final effective antibiotic treatment lasted 20 (amoxicillin + clavulanate) and 10 (clindamycin) days, respectively. Treatment with Arixtra (fondaparinux) continued in primary care and lasted a total of 65 days until normal thrombocyte levels were achieved, with gradual transition to oral anticoagulation treatment. The patient was discharged to primary care on the 23rd day of hospitalization when she was stabilized, a febrile and her cardiopulmonary functions were compensated. We did not identify any case of treatment of jugular thrombosis and concurrent HIT with fondaparin anywhere in the international literature.

mediklin tr review

During the last few decades, group B Streptococcus (GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen. The major reservoirs for GBS are the vagina and the peri-anal regions/rectum, and the colonization of these regions is a risk factor for subsequent infection in pregnant women and newborns.

manfaat mediklin gel

No significant difference was found between the two types of treatment. Patients' global assessment of disease was significantly worse than physician's assessment in 3 of 5 evaluations (P = .0096 to .015), but the correlation between patients' and physicians' assessments was satisfactory after only one visit (rs = .761 to .895). Soreness was the key factor in patients' overall assessment of the disease.

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The etiologic agent of disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, causes recurrent outbreaks among the livestock and intermittent infections in humans across the world. Controlling animal infections by vaccination can minimize the incidence of disease in humans. Prevention of anthrax in occupationally exposed personnel is achieved through vaccination with either live spores or precipitates of culture supernatants from attenuated strains of B. anthracis. However, anthrax vaccination of the large human population is impractical as well as inappropriate. Broad-range antibiotics like amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, streptomycin, and penicillin G are recommended for the treatment of human anthrax infections, but the threat of antibiotic resistant strains always remains. Moreover, in the absence of any specific symptom (s) during early infection, the diagnosis of anthrax is delayed causing elevated levels of anthrax toxin component which could be fatal. For these reasons, there is a need to develop new antimicrobial agents against virulent B. anthracis to effectively combat this fatal pathogen. Over the last two decades, extensive studies have been carried out to develop specific inhibitors against virulence factors of B. anthracis such as capsule, protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factor. Research has also been focused in developing inhibitors of anthrax toxin receptors (including the use of receptor decoys) and host furin endoproteases which are required for activation of toxin. This review highlights the recent progress made in developing the diverse countermeasures for anthrax infections targeting B. anthracis virulence factors and their counterparts in host.

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Clindamycin is speculated to have select advantages in the treatment of certain infections because biologically active antibiotic is internalized by macrophages and PMNs in vitro. By challenging pulmonary host defenses with various bacterial species as probes, we were able to evaluate clindamycin-phagocyte interaction in vivo. A murine model was developed using an implanted mini-osmotic pump to maintain constant clindamycin blood levels at 1/4 MIC (1 microgram/ml). Mice pretreated for 24 h with clindamycin killed a significantly greater percentage of intratracheally inoculated Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in 4 h than did control animals (37 +/- 2% versus 7 +/- 5%). The enhancing effects of clindamycin on pulmonary defenses could not be duplicated by a 1-h preincubation of B. theta in 1/4 MIC of clindamycin before inoculation into untreated mice. Clindamycin blood levels of 1 microgram/ml did not alter the rate at which Pseudomonas aeruginosa (clindamycin-resistant) was killed by pulmonary defenses, suggesting that clindamycin did not cause nonspecific activation of phagocytic defenses. Both PMNs and alveolar macrophages lavaged from the lungs of clindamycin-treated mice contained bioassayable concentrated intracellular antibiotic. The presence of intracellular antibiotic was further supported by experiments in which the intrapulmonary killing of large numbers of Staphylococcus aureus (sensitive, but not resistant organisms) was significantly enhanced (89 +/- 5 versus 70 +/- 5%) by clindamycin pretreatment. In contrast, phagocytes lavaged from mice with constant 1/4 MIC (4 micrograms/ml) blood levels of penicillin G had no detectable intracellular antibiotic activity and did not augment the intrapulmonary killing of B. theta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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One thousand seventy-three bacterial isolates were collected from patients with community acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) in 11 Latin American centers (7 countries) during 1997 and 1998. They were tested against numerous antimicrobial agents by the reference broth microdilution method as part of the ongoing multinational SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Among Streptococcus pneumoniae (553 isolates), approximately 61% were susceptible to penicillin. There was a great variation of the penicillin susceptibility rates among participating countries. The highest susceptibility rates were found in Argentina (76.7%) and Brazil (71.9%), while the lowest rate of penicillin susceptibility was detected in Mexico (33.3%). High level resistance to penicillin and resistance to cefotaxime were observed in nearly 10% of the isolates. The newer quinolones, levofloxacin (MIC(90) 2 microg/mL) and gatifloxacin (MIC90 0.5 microg/mL), were active against 100% of the isolates tested. Among the other non-beta-lactams drugs tested, the rank order of susceptibility against the pneumococci was: chloramphenicol (93.9%)>clindamycin (93.2%)> azithromycin (89.1%) > clarithromycin (88.7%)>tetracycline (78.5%)> trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (55.7%). The percentage of Haemophilus influenzae (361 isolates) isolates resistant to amoxicillin was 12. 7% (beta-lactamase positive). Among Moraxella catarrhalis (159 isolates) isolates, only 8.2% were susceptible. Clavulanic acid restored the activity of amoxicillin against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was active against only 59.5% of H. influenzae, while susceptibility to this compound among M. catarrhalis was 96.1%. All other compounds tested were active against>95% of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates. These species were susceptible to levofloxacin (MIC90 < or = 0.5 microg/mL for both) and gatifloxacin (MIC90 < or = 0.03 microg/mL for both) with very low MICs. Our results indicate that penicillin resistance rates are particularly high among pneumococci in some countries. The newer fluoroquinolones show an excellent potency and spectrum against pathogens causing community acquired respiratory infections in Latin America.

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Retrospective review of all cases of culture-proven EOGBS at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, MA) from 1997 to 2003. Serotyping and surface protein analyses were performed on available disease isolates.

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At 12 weeks, the treatment group had a larger percentage change in open comedones, less fluorescence in all areas assessed, and a larger percent decrease in fluorescence than the vehicle group.

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efek mediklin gel 2017-07-22

Penetration of clindamycin into surgical wounds was studied in 10 patients undergoing radical head and neck surgery. Patients received one preoperative and three postoperative intravenous doses of clindamycin 600 mg. During surgery, samples of plasma and sternocleidomastoid muscle were obtained. Additional plasma samples were collected just before the fourth dose of clindamycin, just after that dose was infused, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. Samples of wound exudate were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after the fourth Flemoxin Solutab 125 Mg dose. The muscle, plasma, and wound exudate samples were assayed for clindamycin base by a gas-liquid chromatographic method. Plasma and wound exudate samples obtained during surgery and one and eight hours after the fourth dose were assayed by a radial immunodiffusion technique for content of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), the major binding protein for clindamycin. Pharmacokinetic values for plasma and wound drainage were calculated and compared. Concentrations of clindamycin in muscle (three to six hours after the first dose) ranged from 0.6 to 5.1 micrograms/g; the ratio of tissue to plasma concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 0.82. The highest mean clindamycin concentration in wound drainage was 4.9 micrograms/mL after the fourth dose, approximately 90% of simultaneous plasma concentrations. Concentrations in wound exudate exceeded those measured in plasma four hours after the dose, and elimination from the wound was slower than from plasma. AAG concentrations in plasma increased from a mean of 89 mg/dL intraoperatively to 134 mg/dL postoperatively. AAG was present in wound exudate in concentrations that were approximately 53% of those observed in plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

mediklin solution review 2017-07-28

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to Azitromicina Azitrix 500 Mg quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates).

mediklin gel dan vitacid 2015-02-08

Prosthetic heart valve sewing rings were impregnated with gentamicin crobefat (EMD 46217), a poorly soluble gentamicin salt, gentamicin sulfate, and clindamycin palmitate to prevent early prosthetic endocarditis. MICs and MBCs of gentamicin and/or clindamycin were tested against several pathogens of early prosthetic endocarditis. The combination of gentamicin and clindamycin was found to be effective against most relevant bacterial pathogens. With an in vitro pharmacokinetic model, the antibacterial activity of gentamicin and clindamycin was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. High gentamicin levels over the first 24 h were required for a strong reduction of bacterial counts of both strains. Equal amounts of gentamicin and clindamycin sustained the antibacterial effect and prevented regrowth. The most effective release curves of gentamicin and clindamycin found with an in vitro model were used for monitoring release profiles of these antibiotics from impregnated sewing rings by investigating combinations of gentamicin sulfate, gentamicin crobefat, and clindamycin palmitate. Sewing rings impregnated with 4 mg of gentamicin sulfate, 14 mg of gentamicin crobefat, and 20 mg of clindamycin palmitate gave an initial gentamicin burst and afterwards yielded a lower sustained release of gentamicin and clindamycin palmitate. These in vitro release kinetics were confirmed in vivo by pharmacokinetic analysis after intramuscular implantation of impregnated sewing ring segments. Gentamicin and active clindamycin palmitate metabolites were obtained at the implantation site for at least 2 weeks in Flagyl 400mg Pill Identifier concentrations of 3 and 5 micrograms per g of muscle, respectively. The investigated method of impregnation holds promise for revision implants after prosthetic valve endocarditis. It may also serve as a prophylactic tool for routine use against this disease.

fungsi mediklin gel orange 2017-06-12

This study compares the efficacy of three different treatment modalities of imipenem/cilastatin and the conventional clindamycin plus tobramycin in an experimental model of intra-abdominal sepsis. 145 Wistar rats were used. 40 served as control and 105 as study groups. A capsule with 0.5 ml of inoculum was surgically implanted in the peritoneal cavity. The inoculum was prepared from human feces of healthy volunteers, with a composition of E. coli 10(6), E. faecalis 10(6), B. fragilis, Clostridium sp 10(5) to 10(6) and anaerobic streptococci 10(5) to 10(6). Eighty animals were treated with imipenem/cilastatin and divided in 3 subgroups: "short pretreatment"--29 animals treated 1 hour prior to surgery and 3 days Avelox 400mg Moxifloxacin Dosage after; "short"--26 animals starting treatment 2 hours post-surgery and continuing it for 3 days; and "long"--25 animals treated for 10 days, starting 2 hours post-surgery. 25 animals received clindamycin plus tobramycin for 10 days. Mortality and the presence of visceral and peritoneal abscesses were the endpoints of the study. The control group had 100% mortality. There were no statistically significant differences among the treated groups although lower mortality was obtained with "short pretreatment" and "long" treatment with imipenem. The presence of abscesses were statistically significant between the imipenem and the combination group. In the imipenem groups, the "short pretreatment" and the long treatment had fewer abscesses than the short one. We conclude that imipenem may be a good alternative monotherapy to conventional therapy with clindamycin plus tobramycin. The "short pretreatment" seemed as good as the long one and better than the short treatment.

mediklin gel 2016-08-22

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and Fungsi Tidact Gel zone diameters around NCCLS strength discs of 100 clinical isolates of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including 79 strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, 19 of C. coli and two of C. lari, plus three type strains of these species, were determined for erythromycin, clindamycin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline. Using error-rate bounded analysis and adjustment of MIC breakpoints to fit natural populations, tentative interpretive zone diameter criteria were set for each of the antimicrobials. Application of these criteria showed that resistance to quinolones was not detected in species other than C. lari. Two strains of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni were susceptible to cephalothin. The type strain of C. lari was susceptible to erythromycin and resistant to clindamycin. Full resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin was not found in any strain, while nine strains were resistant to tetracycline. This disc method should provide a simple approach to resistance detection for surveillance or routine testing of invasive isolates.

mediklin gel adalah 2017-05-14

Anaerobic antibiotic susceptibility testing with standardized methods enabled the authors to speculate on the evolution of antibiotic resistance within the Bacteroides fragilis group strains. Cefoxitin resistance was stable (0-5%) until 1985 and gradually increased later. Clindamycin resistance emerged in 1980 with a stable 10% resistance rate until 1986. An increase in clindamycin resistance Is Noritate An Antibiotic developed in three institutions in 1987. No change was detected for imipenem and metronidazole, while piperacillin resistance increased since 1986. A comparison of antibiotic resistance rates is discussed for anaerobes in different countries.

manfaat mediklin gel orange 2015-11-17

Patients with candidal vulvovaginitis often present with itching, burning, white discharge, vulvar or vaginal erythema, painful intercourse, and stinging on urination. It is treated with oral or topical antifungal agents Cravit Antibiotic . Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by a musty or fishy vaginal odor and a thin, white vaginal discharge. It is treated with oral or topical metronidazole or clindamycin. Patients with trichomoniasis usually complain of profuse, yellow-green discharge and vaginal or vulvar irritation. The standard treatment is a single 2 gram dose of oral metronidazole for both the patient and sexual partners.

indikasi mediklin gel 2015-02-23

For an assessment of the efficacy of clindamycin in preventing bowel necrosis (intestinal gangrene or perforation), 42 premature infants with radiographically confirmed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (pneumatosis, intraportal gas, or both) were randomly assigned to receive parenterally either ampicillin and gentamicin (control group, n = 22) or ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin (n = 20), 20 mg/kg/d Pulmocef 500 Tablet at 8-hour intervals for 10 to 14 days. Infants who had received antibiotics for greater than 24 hours before randomization and those developing intestinal gangrene or perforation less than 12 hours after randomization were excluded. Intestinal gangrene or perforation developed in four infants in the control group and six in the clindamycin group. Four in each group died of NEC. In the control group, one of 18 survivors developed a late stricture requiring surgical resection, whereas six of 15 survivors in the clindamycin group developed such strictures (P = 0.022). Routine inclusion of clindamycin in medical treatment of NEC does not reduce the frequency of intestinal gangrene or perforation and may be associated with an increase in late stricture formation.

mediklin topical solution review 2015-10-15

An 81 year old female patient with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation receiving anticoagulant therapy, was admitted with progressive pain on her right leg for the past 24 hours, associated to local erythema, edema and warmth. The lesion evolved at the same site where she presented a chronic ulcer for the previous 5 months managed only with local care. At admission a necrotic plaque on the affected site was perceived; there was no hypotension or mental confusion but signs of a deep venous thrombosis on the involved leg were found. She was febrile (37.8 degrees C) and with tachychardia (126 per minute). Laboratory evaluation revealed normal white blood cell count and a subtherapheutic anticoagulant INR value. A chest x-ray showed infiltrates on the left lower lung lobe. On the following hours the lesion evolved with increasing pain, haemorrhagic bullae and a purulent discharge through the ulcer, with the patient developing mental deterioration, hypotension, respiratory failure and shock. The patient received intravenous ciprofloxacin and clindamycin and was operated 15 hours after admission performing an over-the knee amputation. A cardiac catheterization demonstrated a low cardiac output (2.3 L/min), and both a high systemic vascular resistance (2888 din.s.cm(-5)) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (17 cm H(2)0), results compatible with cardiogenic shock. Evolution was progressively worse and she died of multiple organic failure 36 hours after admission. Two blood culture samples grew Serratia marcescens. No necropsy was performed and cultures taken from the leg remained negative.