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The E. histolytica ferredoxin (EHFXD) is an iron-sulphur protein and is important in the control of E. histolytica because it donates an electron to and activates metronidazole (4) the most effective anti-amoebic drug. The knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of EHFXD can help to assist in rational design of anti-amebic drugs. Homology modeling of EHFXD has been done by using the knowledge of crystal structure of homologous Ferredoxin structures. It has been shown that EHFXD is more likely to contain 2[4Fe-4S] clusters and has a pseudodiad symmetrical fold. The fold is stabilised by hydrophobic patches as well as by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The importance of two Leu residues in the N- and C-termi in bridging the two clusters has been emphasised. The electrostatic properties of the surface of EHFXD were examined and compared with that of other ferredoxins. It was observed that large regions of negative as well as positive electrostatic potential is a common feature of the [4Fe-4S] containing ferredoxins which might explain their biological role as both electron acceptor and electron donor molecules.
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Of 251 patients tested for CDI, 53 (21%) received empiric treatment, including 45 (85%) treated with metronidazole and 8 (15%) treated with vancomycin. Of the 53 empirical therapy regimens, only 20 (38%) were deemed appropriate based on criteria for severe or severe, complicated CDI and 39 (74%) had negative laboratory testing for CDI. Twenty-one of 39 (54%) patients with negative testing were continued on therapy for three or more days despite the negative results. The key limitations of the study are the fact that it was conducted in a single institution and had a small sample size.
A 4-year-old female (case 1) and her 10-year-old sister (case 2) presented with palmoplantar skin lesions, tooth mobility, and advanced periodontitis. Based on clinical findings, the cases were diagnosed with PLS. Mutational screening of the CTSC gene was conducted for the cases, and their clinically unaffected parents and brother. Biochemical analysis was performed for CTSC, cathepsin G (CTSG), and elastase activity in neutrophils for all members of the nuclear family. The initial treatment included oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing, and systemic amoxicillin-metronidazole therapy.
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The ERMBT values did not change significantly compared with baseline (p=0.82). Median (range) ERMBT values expressed as a percentage of baseline at 24, 72, and 96 hours were 110.3 (96.2-136.9), 101.3 (99.3-115.0), and 101.8 (95.5-116.3), respectively
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Average daily costs (ADC) were determined based on treatment frequency and estimated gram usage for facial application of topical regimens of metronidazole (0.75%, 1%), azelaic acid (15%, 20%), sodium sulfacetamide and sulfur 10%/5%, and oral regimens of tetracycline, doxycycline, and isotretinoin. The ADC was compared with published efficacy rates from clinical trials, with efforts to standardize outcome measures. Based on these efficacy rates, costs per success were calculated and combined with office visit costs to estimate the total cost for each treatment for a 15-week period.
In the case reported herein, rectal prolapse did not recur after diarrhea recovery with antibiotic therapy, suggesting a causative link with pseudomembranous colitis.
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A liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ), dimetridazole (DMZ), and 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole (DMZOH) in swine tissue. After extraction with ethyl acetate and evaporation, the nitroimidazoles were redissolved in hydrochloric acid. Hexane was used in the liquid-liquid extraction to remove fat. An Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction was performed after neutralization of the acidic extract. The limits of detection were 1.0-2.0 microg/kg for DMZOH, MNZ, RNZ, and DMZ in muscle and liver. Average recoveries ranged from 80.1 to 83.9% in muscle fortified at 10, 20, and 50 microg/kg; average recoveries in liver ranged from 78.9 to 82.3%. The procedure provides a simple and sensitive method for monitoring DMZOH, MNZ, RNZ, and DMZ residues in swine tissues.
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The authors evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori resistance in 117 children and demonstrate the changes over a 4-year period.