Both isolates were resistant to cefixime and possessed a number of identical mutations in key genes contributing to ESC resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. The two isolates contained the type XXXIV penA mosaic allele and belonged to a successful international MSM-linked multidrug-resistant gonococcal clone (MLST ST1901) associated with several cefixime treatment failures in Europe and North America.
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Bacteria isolated from lower respiratory tract infections were collected in cooperation with institutions located throughout Japan since 1981, and Ikemoto et al. have been investigating susceptibilities of the isolates to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics, and the relationships between the isolates and characteristics of the patients and so forth each year. We discuss the results in detail. In 20 institutions around the entire Japan from October 1992 to September 1993, 690 strains of bacteria were isolated mainly from sputa of 549 patients with lower respiratory tract infections and presumed to be the etiological bacteria. MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics were determined against 101 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 121 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 122 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 92 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid), 32 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mucoid), 52 strains of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, 28 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae etc., and the drug susceptibilities of these strains were measured except the strains which died during transportation. 1. S. aureus S. aureus strains for which MICs of methicillin were higher than 4 micrograms/ml (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) accounted for 61.4% and the frequency of the drug resistant bacteria was higher than the previous year's 58.3%. MICs values indicated that arbekacin was as active as vancomycin against all the strains on S. aureus. 2. S. pneumoniae Benzylpenicillin among the penicillins showed potent activities against S. pneumoniae. Cefuzonam, cefazolin, cefotaxime and cefmenoxime among the cephems showed excellent antimicrobial activities against S. pneumoniae. Imipenem; carbapenems, showed the most potent activity, and MIC80 was 0.015 microgram/ml. 3. H. influenzae All the drugs tested were potent against H. influenzae. Ampicillin among the penicillins showed MIC80 1 microgram/ml against H. influenzae. Cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefuzonam and cefixime showed the most potent activities, and MIC80s were 0.063 microgram/ml. The antimicrobial activity of ofloxacin was equivalent to those of cephems. 4. P. aeruginosa (mucoid) Ciprofloxacin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid), and MIC80 was 1 microgram/ml. Cefsulodin, aztreonam, carumonam and tobramycin showed the next most potent activities with an MIC80s of 2 micrograms/ml. 5. P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid) Tobramycin and ciprofloxacin showed the highest activities against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid) with an MIC80s of 2 micrograms/ml. Norfloxacin also showed some activity, and MIC80 was 4 micrograms/ml. Comparing to activities against P. aeruginosa (mucoid), all the drugs tested showed lower activities against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid). 6. K. pneumoniae The activities of all drugs except penicillins were high activities against K. pneumoniae. Carumonam showed the most potent activity with an MIC80 of 0.063 microgram/ml, followed by flomoxef, cefixime and cefozopran with their MIC80s of 0.125 microgram/ml. 7. M.(B.) catarrhalis Imipenem; carbapenems, showed the most potent activity against M.(B.) catarrhalis with an MIC80 0.063 microgram/ml. Minocycline and ofloxacin showed MIC80s 0.125 microgram/ml, respectively. We also investigated year to year changes in the background of patients, as well as types of respiratory infectious diseases, and the etiological bacteria. As for patients backgrounds, there were many infectious diseases found among patients in a high age bracket, and the patients over age 60 accounted for 60.8% of the diseases. The distribution by lower respiratory tract infections was as follows: bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis accounted for the greatest numbers of cases with 30.4%, 29.5%, respectively, followed by bronchiectasis with 12.2%. As for frequencies of etiologic bacteria for respiratory tract infections, H. influenzae: 22.2%, and S. pneumoniae: 15.1% in chronic bronchitis; S. pneumoniae: 2
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During 2002 and 1998, 895 and 595 strains of Escherichia coli respectively, isolated from extrahospitalary bacteriurias were collected in ten health centers in Bierzo (León, Spain). Sensitivity to nine most commonly antibiotics used in the clinical practise was determined. The existence of significant differences of susceptibility among years (2002-1998) was analyzed by the chi square test.
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The emergence of a clonal group of gonococci showing decreased susceptibility to cefixime in England and Wales highlights the need for continued surveillance.
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A small GTP-binding protein, Rab8, is essential for apical localization of oligopeptide transporter PEPT1/SLC15A1 and sodium/glucose cotransporter SGLT1/SLC5A1 in small intestine; deficiency of rab8 gene results in mislocalization and reduced expression of these transporters. Here, we examined the role of PEPT1 and SGLT1 in vivo in gastrointestinal absorption of a beta-lactam antibiotic, cefixime, and alpha-methyl-d-glycopyranoside (alpha-MDG), respectively, using rab8 gene knockout [rab8(-/-)] mice as experimental animals deficient in those transporters. Plasma concentration of cefixime and alpha-MDG after oral administration in rab8(-/-) mice was much lower than that in wild-type mice, whereas such reduction in oral absorption was not observed for antipyrine, membrane permeation of which is not transporter-mediated. Uptake of cefixime from the apical side of isolated small intestine assessed by means of the everted sac method in wild-type mice was decreased in the presence of excess unlabeled glycylsarcosine, a PEPT1 substrate. In contrast, the uptake in rab8(-/-) mice was much lower than that in wild-type mice and comparable with that of an extracellular marker, mannitol, suggesting that the apical membrane permeability of cefixime was reduced in rab8(-/-) mice. Uptake of cefixime in wild-type mice was pH-dependent, being higher at lower pH, whereas that in rab8(-/-) mice remained at the background level at all pH values examined. These results suggest that PEPT1 and SGLT1 play an important role in gastrointestinal absorption of cefixime and alpha-MDG, respectively, in vivo in mice. The present findings also illustrate the pharmacokinetic influence of the sorting machinery protein Rab8.
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Patients with Salmonella enteritis were randomized to receive oral azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day once daily), cefixime (10 mg/kg/day divided twice daily) or no antibiotics for 5 days. The patients were followed up for the duration of their symptoms. Stool samples were sent for culture weekly following the therapy until two consecutive negative results were obtained. Susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics was tested by the disk diffusion method.
Among primary outcomes (clinical failure, microbiological failure, and relapse), compared with chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones were not statistically significantly different for clinical failure (594 participants) or microbiological failure (378 participants), but they reduced clinical relapse (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.50; 467 participants, 6 trials). We detected no statistically significant difference versus co-trimoxazole (82 participants, 2 trials) or azithromycin (152 participants, 2 trials). Fluoroquinolones reduced clinical failure compared with ceftriaxone (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.45; 120 participants, 3 trials), but not microbiological failure or relapse. Versus cefixime, fluoroquinolones reduced clinical failure (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.24; 238 participants; 2 trials) and relapse (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.91; 218 participants, 2 trials).
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Of the invasive isolates, 86.6% were non-typeable and 62% were isolated from adults. Decreased susceptibility to β-lactams was due to the BLNAR genotype (gBLNAR; 19.2%) and to β-lactamase production (16.9%). Susceptibility rates to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, cefixime and imipenem were greater than 98%. Of 18 gBLNAR non-typeable isolates studied by MLST, 15 different STs were obtained. Amoxicillin and cefotaxime were bactericidal after 2 and 4 h of incubation, respectively.