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Among primary outcomes (clinical failure, microbiological failure, and relapse), compared with chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones were not statistically significantly different for clinical failure (594 participants) or microbiological failure (378 participants), but they reduced clinical relapse (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.50; 467 participants, 6 trials). We detected no statistically significant difference versus co-trimoxazole (82 participants, 2 trials) or azithromycin (152 participants, 2 trials). Fluoroquinolones reduced clinical failure compared with ceftriaxone (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.45; 120 participants, 3 trials), but not microbiological failure or relapse. Versus cefixime, fluoroquinolones reduced clinical failure (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.24; 238 participants; 2 trials) and relapse (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.91; 218 participants, 2 trials).
We generated 2x2 tables for the principal outcome measures. We used the Peto modified Mantel-Haenszel technique to calculate odds ratios and assessed statistical heterogeneity between studies.
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In this single-center pilot study, children with uncomplicated AOM were randomly assigned to receive single-dose oral azithromycin (30 mg/kg), 3-day oral azithromycin (10 mg/kg once daily), or single-dose intramuscular ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg). Tympanocentesis was performed before administration of the first dose, and clinical response was assessed on days 14-15 and 28-30.
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Legionella pneumophila pneumonia during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the mother and lead to fetal distress. We report a case of L. pneumophila pneumonia in a pregnant woman at 31 weeks gestation. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the outcome was favorable with delivery of a healthy infant at 40 weeks gestation.
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Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is an important presentation among hospitalized patients. Standardized definitions of this entity are almost a decade old, and practice patterns have shifted from published guidelines to include empiric coverage with a macrolide, such as azithromycin. Azithromycin is oftentimes included in the empiric treatment regimen for HCAP because of the importance of appropriate empiric antimicrobial coverage, the perceived concern regarding atypical organisms, potential anti-inflammatory effects of the medication, and positive clinical data among patients with Streptococcal bacteremia.
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Increases in elevated MIC of cefixime/ceftriaxone/azithromycin were superimposed on a background of established resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin and may signal impending gonococcal resistance to first-line treatments. Ongoing surveillance will inform timely shifts in treatment recommendations.
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We identified inmates with acute respiratory illness (ARI) from 1 November 2009 to 24 February 2010 through clinic self-referral and active case finding. We tested oropharyngeal and/or nasopharyngeal swabs for C. pneumoniae by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and serum samples by microimmunofluorescence. Cases were inmates with ARI and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, positive qPCR, or serological evidence of recent infection. Swabs from 7 acutely ill inmates were tested for 18 respiratory pathogens using qPCR TaqMan Array Cards (TACs). Follow-up swabs from case patients were collected for up to 8 weeks.
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The best treatment is complete surgical excision, whereas the importance of additional or exclusive treatment with Clarithromycin, Rifabutin and other antibiotics could not be clarified completely. But in patients with AIDS Rifabutin and other drugs could perhaps be useful, even for prophylaxis. Also if complete excision is impossible, treatment with certain drugs (Clarithromycin or Azithromycin in combination with Rifampicin) will be recommended. It still remains in question if NTM infections in children are really increasing.