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Chronic renal failure is associated with distal symmetrical axonal neuropathy. We report a 50-year-old man who suffered from chronic renal failure due to benign enlargement of the prostate. He presented with fever and rapidly developing pure motor neuropathy. The nerve conduction velocity was slow and the F response delayed, suggestive of demyelinating neuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy specimen was also consistent with demyelination and axonal changes. This patient improved significantly following intermittent catheterization and a short course of norfloxacin. Renal failure may be associated with reversible motor neuropathy.
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Genome analysis and searches of homology between the identified transporters and proteins characterized in other organisms revealed 16 open reading frames encoding putative drug efflux pumps belonging to MFS. In the case of two of them, we also have demonstrated that they function as drug efflux proteins.
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Most of our cohort consisted of young adult females that were seen at the Emergency Department. E. coli was the most frequent (70.2%) among the 75 species isolated. Resistance of all isolates was ≥ 20% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefazolin and nalidixic acid. Although E. coli was more susceptible (resistance ≥ 20% for TMP/SMX and nalidixic acid) among all of the isolates, when classified by the number and percentage of antibiotic resistance. Global resistance to fluoroquinolones was approximately 12%. Risk factors for E. coli were female gender and an age less than 65 years. Men and patients older than 65 years of age, presented more resistant isolates. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were identified in 173 out of 5,722 Gram-negative isolates (3.0%) between 2010 and 2011.
To investigate the development of fluoroquinolone resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Japan and the frequency and patterns of mutations involving the GyrA and ParC proteins, which confer quinolone resistance to the bacteria, in isolates.
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The in vitro activities of PD127391 and the new fluorinated-4-quinolone, PD131628, were compared with each other and with five similar fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin). A total of 844 isolates mainly from recent clinical bacteremias and additional stock strains with well-characterized resistance mechanisms were tested. PD127391 had slightly more activity than PD131628 (90% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90)] 0.008-0.12) against the Enterobacteriaceae, but both were two- to fourfold more potent than ciprofloxacin. PD131628 activity was equal to or greater than PD127391 when tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PD127391 showed greatest activity against Bacteroides fragilis group strains (MIC90, 2 micrograms/ml) when compared with PD131628 (MIC90 greater than 8 micrograms/ml). Both PD127391 (MIC90s, 0.015-1.0 micrograms/ml) and PD131628 (MIC90s, 0.03 - greater than 8 micrograms/ml) were more active than ciprofloxacin against Gram-positive organisms. Altering the medium pH, adding divalent cations (magnesium), and increasing the inoculum concentration to 10(6) colony-forming units per spot adversely effected the activity of both PD127391 and PD131628. Resistance selection and mutational rates to resistance were identical to previously studied drugs in their class.
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A novel, simple and straightforward method for determination of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in compost has been developed. The procedure entails a low-pressurized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) carried out by a high performance instrument, in alkaline aqueous solution containing magnesium ions as FQs complexing agent, followed by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Enrofloxacin (ENR), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Norfloxacin (NOR), four widely used FQ antibiotics, were simultaneously extracted from compost by a single MAE cycle (20min, 135°C). The method was validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity and accuracy. Quantitative absolute recovery (70-112%, n=3) and suitable precision (RSD<15%, n=3) were observed, at concentration levels ranging from 25 ng g(-1) to 2500 ng g(-1). Analytes were separated in a 10min chromatographic run and quantified/confirmed in single reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. UPLC coupled to SRM-MS detection allowed to achieve improved sensitivity, and selective detection. Method detection and quantification limits, MDLs and MQLs, were in the range 2.2-3.0 ng g(-1) and 6.6-9.0 ng g(-1), respectively. The high-performance microwave system here used strongly improved the extraction efficiency with respect to a conventional apparatus. The procedure proved to be simpler, less expensive, faster, and more green with respect to the few methods currently described in literature, providing at the same time suitable recovery and reproducibility. The analytical method has been applied to the analysis of actual compost samples, wherein FQs have been quantified at concentrations up to 88 ng g(-1).
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The effect of cyanide, arsenate, Mg++ or EDTA on the uptake of norfloxacin in Escherichia coli was measured. Uptake of norfloxacin was suppressed by either 0.1 mM MgSO4 or 0.1 mM EDTA, while the presence of 0.1 mM MgSO4 increased the minimum suppressive concentration of EDTA from 0.1 to 0.2 mM. Increased uptake in the presence of 10 mM cyanide was observed, but the addition of 10 mM arsenate had no significant effect. Concentration of norfloxacin in bacterial cells was observed even when uptake was suppressed by the addition of 10 mM EDTA. Uptake in mini-cells was comparable to that in whole cells. These results suggest that the uptake of norfloxacin in E. coli, in addition to influx by simple diffusion and energy-dependent efflux, is influenced by binding of norfloxacin to the cell surface as a result of chelating activity to Mg++, together with an unknown concentration step resulting from binding to cell components other than the chromosome.
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A surveillance of Shigella infections was conducted on 612 children aged 0-12 years-old presenting with diarrhea to Mampang and Tebet Community Health Centers in South Jakarta, Indonesia, during February 2005 through September 2007. Shigella was isolated from 9.3% of diarrhea patients in the health centers. S.flexneri which was found in 5.9% of patients, and was the most frequent species isolated, comprising 63.2% (36/57) of all Shigella species isolated. Shigella species were found significantly more often among children over 2 years old, and the rate of isolation increased with age. Stool with mucus and/or blood were the main characteristics of Shigella infection in these patients. Antibiotic multi-resistance was found in S. flexneri and S. boydii strains, in particular to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. None of the Shigella species showed resistance to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone
M. tuberculosis was inoculated into the non-high osmotic medium with rifampin, isoniazid or ethambutol and then the L-form was observed by microscopy daily. The cultures were filtrated to get the pure cultures of stable L-form by subculture with the non-high osmotic medium and characteristics of morphology, growth, susceptibilities to the antibacterial drugs and the special gene of M. tuberculosis were observed when the pure subcultures of the L-form were isolated.
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Epidemiologic factors were observed. Host immune status with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology and CD4/CD8 analysis was performed when consent was obtained. Visual acuity (VA) and slit-lamp examination throughout the course of keratitis was recorded. Treatment used included topical fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5%, gatifloxacin 0.5%, levofloxacin 0.5%, or norfloxacin 0.3%) as monotherapy or in combination with topical fumagillin and/or systemic albendazole. Where corneal edema developed, ultrasound corneal pachymetry was recorded.
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156 strains of isolated P. aeruginosa were studied at the Virgin Macarena University Hospital in Seville during 1998 and 1999. The in vitro activity of four fluorquinolones was determined by microdilution in Mueller Hinton bouillon, supplemented with cations, following the NCCLS guidelines.