We examined the cases that prescribed levofloxacin (LVFX) 500mg for middle ear diseases in our hospital. LVFX 500mg was prescribed in 18 cases (7 male, 11 female, 24-81 years old). LVFX was mainly used for the following clinical conditions, 1) otitis media with granulation proliferation: 3 cases, 2) infection to an artificial materials : 5 cases, 3) treatment for or prevention against the inflammation of the inner ear: 4 cases. Three of eighteen cases were ineffective by LVFX treatment. Bacteriological examination indicated LVFX-resistant MRSA or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated in these three cases.
This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors.
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Thirty-four clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing nosocomial infection were studied. MPC values were determined using an inoculum of 10(10) cfu/mL on Mueller-Hinton plates with serial dilutions of the antibiotics. The microorganisms were classified according to whether the patients had been previously treated with fluoroquinolones or not.
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Corneal ulcer was induced in the right eye of 40 rabbits, 3.0 x 10(9) CFU/ml staphylococcus aureus suspension was injected midstromally into the central corneal. These rabbits were divided randomly into 5 groups, each group received respectively topical blank matrix, clarithromycin ophthalmic gel 0.1%, clarithromycin ophthalmic gel 0.25%, levofloxacin ophthalmic gel, clarithromycin ophthalmic gel 0.25% and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (Rb-bFGF), 4 times every day, 2 drops each time. The eyes were examined respectively with the slit lamp before treatment (day 0), on day 3, day 5, day 7, day 10, day 14 to observe the progression of corneal ulceration, including the area of the corneal ulcer and mark of keratitis.
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A total of 155 H. pylori strains were isolated from tissue samples of the 260 patients (positive rate, 59.6%). The drug-resistance rate of H. pylori isolated to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and furazolidone was 94.2%(146/155), 21.3%(33/155), 2.6%(4/155), 5.8% (9/155), and 1.9%(3/155), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in positive culture rate and drug-resistance rate between different sex, age, and disease category(all P>0.05).
This study was performed to evaluate the change of prescribing patterns after the regulatory action regarding fluoroquinolones in pediatric patients.
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Without the influence of preservatives, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin might be less toxic to the regeneration of conjunctival epithelial cells and cause a faster conjunctival wound healing relative to moxifloxacin.
Thirty-eight patients (mean age, 65 +/- 19 years), 23 women and 15 men, were studied. There was a small but significant increase in the longest QTc intervals over baseline in patients receiving levofloxacin; there was no significant change in the mean QTc interval. However, one patient who received levofloxacin was, statistically, an outlier and, on retrospective analysis, had demonstrated severe electrolyte disturbances at the time of the study. When this patient was excluded, the increase in the longest QTc interval was not significant. Patients receiving ciprofloxacin did not demonstrate any significant change in the longest QTc interval or mean QTc interval.
Resistance is one of failure's reasons. We tried, through clinical experience, to approach the magnitude and nature of the links, between phenotypically defined acquired resistance and clinical failure, in community acquired respiratory infections. An efficient resistance mecanism, able to suppress antibiotic action, is clearely associated to a risk of clinical failure (e.g. betalactamase secretion, target modification using methilation for macrolides, target mutation for fluoroquinoles). Resistance mecanism due to reduction of target affinity (pneumococcus and betalactams) progressively decreasing beta lactam activity depending on its expression, is at present time, not clearely associeted with clinical failure. Critical concentration, defining phenotypical resistance, is predictive of failure if it identifies a bacterial population owning an efficient resistance mecanism. It will not be predictive of failure if that concentration do not detect the resistance mecanism (e.g. parC mutation and levofloxacin) or if the link between antibiotic and resistant bacteria is not binary but depends also on pharmacokinetic parameters (pneumococcus and betalactam). Using resistance as a parametre for antibiotic choice, must integrate several elements: presence or not of a resistance mecanism, type and efficiency of the mecanism, links with clinical failure and antibiotic concentration, type and site of infection. Critical concentration is not allways the magic number that predict failure or success.
These findings suggest that, despite increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance, levofloxacin prophylaxis during neutropenia may have a beneficial impact on morbidity and infection-related mortality. Continued monitoring of the rate of gram-negative bacteremia is warranted for timely detection of the loss of efficacy of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.
In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole + tetracycline is authorised in the European Union for use in combination with omeprazole for 10 days. It seems effective, even in case of clarithromycin resistance. However, bismuth can cause encephalopathy, and its value when added to antibiotics and a PPI is poorly documented. We found no robust comparative data on second-line empirical treatments. In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with H. pylori, eradication of the bacterium reduces the risk of complications and recurrence. In mid-2015, the choice of antibiotics is based on trials in which the primary endpoint was a negative urea breath test, which is an acceptable surrogate criterion. In previously untreated patients, the first-choice empirical treatment consists of three antibiotics: amoxicillin (2 g daily), clarithromycin (1 g daily) and metronidazole (1 g daily), plus a PPI (in practice, omeprazole 40 mg daily), with each drug taken in two divided doses per day. The antibiotics may be taken either simultaneously for five days, or sequentially (amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days). The adverse effects of these antibiotic combinations correspond to those of their component drugs, which mainly consist of gastrointestinal disorders and the disulfiram-like reaction of metronidazole. Amoxicillin can be replaced by a fluoroquinolone in patients allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics, but there is a higher risk of resistance. Tetracycline and doxycycline appear effective, as few H. pylori strains are resistant in vitro. Bismuth can cause encephalopathy and should only be used in special cases.