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a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.
An n-of-1 study was performed using 2 treatment and 2 nontreatment phases during an infection-free interval. Treatment arms consisted of 10-day courses of levofloxacin 500 mg daily. The evaluating investigator, caregiver, and patient were blind to treatment assignments. Measures included the Apathy Evaluation Scale (clinician and caregiver), Apathy Inventory (clinician and caregiver), Northwestern University Disability Scale, Disability Assessment for Dementia, and caregiver clinical global impression score.
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The 3 fluoroquinolones reviewed showed comparable clinical and microbiologic efficacy for the treatment of CAP. In general, the fluoroquinolones were well tolerated, although some differences have been reported, including higher rates of gastrointestinal and other adverse events for gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin. Gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin exhibited greater in vitro potency than levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, levofloxacin achieved a higher serum drug concentration than the other agents, allowing similar attainment of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic targets required for effective treatment.
Extragodanal germ cell tumors (EGCT) are not common, especially among women. Although there is no evidence of relationship between this sort of tumor and HIV infection they can appear at the same time in a patient, because in both cases the maximum incidence occurs in patients in the same age group. We present the case of a 27 years old woman, poly-drug user, with a recently diagnosis of HIV infection, who was admitted to clinic because of infection and shortage of breath, and develops during her hospitalization diarrhoea, generalized tonic-clonic seizure and left hemiparesis. Complementary tests showed us diffuse interstitial pulmonary pattern, mediastinal mass with intrathoracic adenopathies, cerebral tumor and diffuse intestinal enlargement. The breath infection got better with a wide-ranging antibiotic treatment, which included cotrimoxazol and levofloxacin, but the brain tumor didńt get better with the antitoxoplasma treatment. The clinical presentation simulated in the beginning a disseminated lymphoma, in a HIV+ patient; nevertheless, after receiving the result of the biopsy of a supraclavicular adenopathy and a b-HCG, an extragodanal germ cell tumor was diagnosed. We haven't found any case of EGCT in young women infected with HIV in our bibliographical review (MEDLINE).
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The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in Scotland by determining the distribution of PCR ribotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility in 1613 isolates collected from all healthboard areas of Scotland in the period November 2007-December 2009. Three PCR ribotypes predominated amongst the Scottish isolates of C. difficile; ribotype 106 (29.4%), ribotype 001 (22%) and ribotype 027 (12.6%) followed by the less prevalent ribotypes including 002, 015, 014, 078, 005, 023 and 020. The distribution of ribotypes varied between healthboard areas. Ribotype 106 or 001 was the predominant ribotype in 10 healthboard areas, while ribotype 027 was the predominant type in two neighbouring areas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of C. difficile isolates showed high frequencies of resistance to moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, erythromycin and cefotaxime in the epidemic C. difficile ribotypes 001, 027 and 106 compared to other less common ribotypes. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility to metronidazole was found only in the epidemic strains. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that fluoroquinolones, macrolides and cephalosporins may play a role in the spread of C. difficile in Scotland (while the role of metronidazole needs further investigations), and highlights the role of antimicrobial stewardship in preventing and controlling C. difficile infection (CDI).
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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children of either sex, comparing at least two antibiotics for CAP within hospital or ambulatory (outpatient) settings.
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A case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (LRSP) colonization or infection. Twenty-seven case patients (patients with LRSP) were compared with 54 controls (patients with levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae). Risk factors that were significantly associated with LRSP colonization or infection, according to univariate analysis, included an older age (median age, 75 years for case patients versus 72.5 years for controls), residence in a nursing home (odds ratio [OR], 7.2), history of recent (OR, 4.6) and multiple (OR, 4.4) hospitalizations, prior exposure to fluoroquinolones (OR, 10.6) and beta-lactams (OR, 8.6), presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR, 5.9), and nosocomial origin of the bacteria (OR, 5.7). Multivariate analysis showed that presence of COPD (OR, 10.3), nosocomial origin of the bacteria (OR, 16.2), residence in a nursing home (OR, 7.4), and exposure to fluoroquinolones (OR, 10.7) were independently associated with LRSP colonization or infection. Thus, a distinct group of patients with COPD is the reservoir of LRSP.
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This partially masked randomized placebo-controlled multinational clinical study to evaluate prospectively the prophylactic effect of intracameral cefuroxime injection and/or perioperative levofloxacin eyedrops on the incidence of endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification cataract surgery began in September 2003 and was terminated early in January 2006. The study used random allocation of patients in a 2 x 2 factorial design.
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Our results suggest that, when combined to a β-lactam, levofloxacin is associated with lower mortality than ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in severe pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia.
No significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in the cumulative incidences of failure of prophylaxis (P = 0.21), clinically documented infections (P = 0.70), or non-relapse mortality within the first 100 days after transplantation (P = 0.42). With bacteremia, the rate of resistance to LVFX was 82% in the PB group and 100% in the LVFX group (P = 0.41). Also, no significant difference was found in overall survival between the 2 groups (P = 0.78).
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We report a severe case of Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) keratitis presenting as suppurative keratitis in a 77-year-old woman. The patient's chief complaint was eye pain and decreased visual acuity in her right eye. Suppurative keratitis with a severe corneal abscess was diagnosed by a slit-lamp ophthalmic examination. The causative organism was identified as S. lugdunensis by bacterial culture, using a corneal abrasion specimen. She was treated with an intravenous drip infusion of ceftazidime and instillation of gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic solution (six times daily) and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment (once daily before bedtime) as empiric therapy. Her hospital course was complicated by a corneal perforation of her right eye. The antibiotic susceptibility for S. lugdunensis was sensitive, but with a slightly high MIC for antibiotics used in empiric therapy. The therapeutic drug was changed to levofloxacin ophthalmic solution. The corneal abscess left a scar after healing. Representative causative organisms of suppurative keratitis include Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, but care must be taken in cases involving rare causative organisms. Empiric therapy is necessary for rapidly progressing suppurative keratitis, but a detailed examination of the causative organism is important for therapeutic planning before empiric therapy.