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The in vitro activity of a novel 8-methoxyquinolone, BAY 12-8039, against recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 404), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 330), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 250) was evaluated. Activity was compared to those of six other fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin. BAY 12-8039 and clinafloxacin had the highest levels of activity against S. pneumoniae, both with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90) of 0.06 microg/ml. Trovafloxacin and sparfloxacin were the next most active agents versus S. pneumoniae (MIC90s = 0.12 microg/ml). No differences in activity against penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, or -resistant strains of S. pneumoniae were noted for any of the fluoroquinolones tested. MIC90s for the seven fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.008 to 0.06 microg/ml versus H. influenzae and from 0.008 to 0.12 microg/ml for M. catarrhalis. The MICs for two strains of S. pneumoniae and one strain of H. influenzae were noted to be higher than those for the general population of organisms for all of the fluoroquinolones tested. Finally, the activity of BAY 12-8039 versus S. pneumoniae was found to be diminished when MIC determinations were performed with incubation of agar dilution plates or broth microdilution trays in 5 to 7% CO2 versus ambient air.
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The S. pn strains isolated from infant respiratory tract in Chengdu perform a serious drug resistance problem, especially to routine antibiotics like erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline and cephalosporin, the resistance rate to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol remained at a low level; the resistance to tetracycline was closely related with the tet M gene fragment, the resistance to macrolide was mainly decided by active efflux pump and secondarily by the alternation of gene targeting, int Tn had close relation with tet M, erm B.
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We obtained NIH-CPSI and IIEF-5 scores from 132 chronic prostatitis patients with ED and divided the patients into a control (n = 70) and a treatment group (n = 62), the former treated with oral levofloxacin 0.2 g bid for 4-6 weeks and oral Terazosin at 2 mg qd for 2 months, and the latter with oral CXC once 2 capsules tid for 2 months in addition to the above.
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A 76-year-old diabetic man, developed empyema as a result of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) secondary to Haemophilus influenzae, as confirmed on sputum culture. Nasal swab was positive for influenza A antigen. After drainage of empyema, intravenous peramivir and piperacillin/tazobactam were administered for 3 days and 2 weeks, respectively, followed by oral levofloxacin for 2 weeks. Eventually, he recovered. In this case, the isolated H. influenzae was non-typeable and negative for beta-lactamase.
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similar to previous findings, E. faecium and E. faecalis are predominant conditionally pathogenic bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections that can cause urinary and respiratory system infections. Multiple and high-level antimicrobial resistance is highly prevalent in the hospital isolates of Enterococcus species. Reserpine treatment inhibits the active efflux of Enterococcus species to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin in vitro and reduces the MIC of Enterococcus species to these three fluoroquinolones. The presence of the enterococcal multidrug resistance efflux emeA gene is associated with the resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus species. The monitoring of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species is of great significance to guide the control and prevention of enterococcal infections.
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Susceptibility of 96 Listeria monocytogenes human isolates collected in northern Italy between 2008 and 2010, to 15 antimicrobials, was investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by means of the standardized broth microdilution method, according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) international guidelines. All L. monocytogenes human isolates were susceptible to penicillin G (MIC(90)≤0·06 μg/ml), meropenem (MIC(90)≤0·06 μg/ml), and erythromycin (MIC(90) = 0·12 μg/ml). Susceptibility to the other tested antimicrobials could not be interpreted due to the lack of breakpoint values although two (2%) isolates were shown to have tetracycline MICs above EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFF). Bactericidal activity for amoxicillin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin was generally observed at concentrations 2-4 times higher than MIC values. Though L. monocytogenes human strains, isolated in the north of Italy, appear to be susceptible to most antimicrobial agents used in human therapy, this study provides new data for epidemiological surveillance and clinical breakpoints definition.
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In 5 strains, a stepwise increase in MIC to LVFX (up to >128 μg/ml)was observed. Compared to the parent strains, additional mutations in QRDR were observed in the strains developing high MIC. Remarkable increase of marA expression was observed even in the early stage of LVFX-resistance development, and it lasted until high-level resistance was developed. On the other hand, moderate increase in acrB expression but only low increase in yhiU, yhiV, mdfA, tolC and sdiA were observed.
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To investigate antimicrobial effects on a mixed culture of five Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes (S) as an approach to ecology of population dynamics.
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Liver abscess occurs in most patients with biliary stents or bypass undergoing chemoembolization despite the use of standard prophylactic antibiotics. The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of an aggressive prophylactic regimen to prevent abscess in such patients.
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The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae in the total urinary isolates from hospital-dwelling patients was smaller than that from community-dwelling patients (66.0 vs. 85.5%, P<0.001), while the proportions of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterococcus species were relatively larger (8.7%, 6.0% and 12.0% vs. 2.8%, 0.7% and 2.8%, respectively, P<0.05). The isolates from hospital-dwelling patients showed lower susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and all generations of cephalosporin (P<0.05), and a higher prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producers (41.7 vs. 5.4%, P<0.001), compared with those from community-dwelling patients. The susceptibility rates to levofloxacin were lower than 50% in both community and hospital-dwelling patients.
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Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to quinolones do occur, with moxifloxacin being the drug most frequently involved. The BAT is a useful method for diagnosing patients. Specific IgE was demonstrated by Sepharose-RIA and inhibition assay.