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Present study suggest that drug induced cutaneous eruptions are common ranging from common nuisance rashes to rare life threatening diseases like SJS and TEN, SJS/TEN typically occur 1-3 weeks after initiation of therapy. Aromatic AED's, LTG, oxicam NSAID's, sulfasalazine and levofloxacin have a tremendous potential to trigger SCARS's. To ensure safe use of pharmaceutical agents and better treatment outcomes post marketing voluntary reporting of severe rare and unusual reactions remains inevitable.
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Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.
One hundred consecutive strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical specimens submitted to the clinical microbiology hospital laboratory. Duplicate isolates were not included. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these isolates were determined by using Etests, performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus served as reference controls.
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Our finding have shown that H. influenzae was the most prevalent pathogen followed by S. aureus, GABHS, M. catarrhalis, and S. pneumoniae and that there was no unique antibiotic to combat all prevalent pathogens, but penicillins could be the choice in GABHS and H. influenzae; beta-lactamase inhibitors and cefotaxime for GABHS, H. influenzae, and S. aureus; macrolids in GABHS and S. aureus; cotrimoxazole in H. influenzae and S. aureus; and levofloxacin and telithromycin in the treatment of S. penumoniae related URTIs.
To analyze the types, distribution characteristics and in vitro susceptibility of antibiotic agents of ocular non-viral microbial isolates in children.
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The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile.
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Antimicrobial use in long-term care facilities (LTCF) is an important public health issue, especially regarding its potential role in antimicrobial resistance. Up to two thirds of long-stay LTCF residents receive antimicrobial therapy each year. However, little is known specifically about antimicrobial use in short-stay LTCF residents receiving post-acute care.
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Various analysis based on PK-PD (pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics) theory were performed for prediction on the efficacy of antimicrobial agents for infectious diseases. However, there have been few reports when causative organisms would be anaerobic bacteria. Although the antimicrobial activity of fluoroquinolones against anaerobes has been weak, gatifloxacin (GFLX), moxifloxacin (MFLX), and garenoxacin (GRNX) are considered as anti-anaerobic quinolones in recent days. Therefore, we investigated prediction on the efficacy of fluoroquinolones for anaerobic infections using Monte Carlo Simulation. Although the target attainment of fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, GFLX, and MFLX) on AUC/MIC value has not established yet, we have assumed 40 and 125 as the target attainment of AUC/MIC value. GFLX and MFLX would be effective against anaerobic infections caused by Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Micromonas micros, which are the causative organisms for respiratory tract infections. From these results, GFLX and MFLX would be effective against anaerobic infections in respiratory tract as anti-anaerobic fluoroquinolones.
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A total of 143 healthy volunteers (levofloxacin, n = 71; azithromycin, n = 72) without antibacterial exposure in the previous 90 days received either levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days or azithromycin 500 mg once daily on day 1 and 250 mg once daily on days 2 through 5. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained pre-exposure, at day 5, and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-dosing. Bacterial strains were identified and the minimum inhibitory concentrations for levofloxacin and azithromycin were determined.
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To compare the aqueous humor concentration of levofloxacin 0.5%, gatifloxacin 0.3% and levofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution after topical dosing in human eyes.
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are attracted to sites of infection. They have the potential to deliver antimicrobial agents to these sites if the agents enter the cells and do not alter migration. Penicillin G did not enter cells and was not transported by PMN. We found that azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and telithromycin were concentrated in PMN and transported toward a chemoattractant. These antimicrobial agents were released from the PMN and inhibited the growth of bacteria on test plates.
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88 of 172 women self-diagnosed a total of 172 UTIs. Laboratory evaluation showed a uropathogen in 144 cases (84%), sterile pyuria in 19 cases (11%), and no pyuria or bacteriuria in 9 cases (5%). Clinical and microbiological cures occurred in 92% and 96%, respectively, of culture-confirmed episodes. No serious adverse events occurred.