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Because of the continual evolution of resistance among gram-negative bacteria in the United States, reevaluation of optimum dosing strategies for beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotics is necessary.
The qnr genes are transferable genes that confer low-level quinolone resistance by protection of topoisomerase. The occurrence of mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA, gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC, parE) genes in strains harbouring qnr was investigated in 28 qnrA-positive clinical isolates, among which 7 strains also harboured qnrS. Topoisomerase mutations were found in 25 (89%) of the 28 strains, with at least two mutations (gyrA and parC) in 13 strains and one mutation in 12 strains. Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex were compared with reference strains of the new Enterobacter species. gyrA mutations were found at position 83 (Ser or Thr for Ile, Tyr, Leu or Phe depending on the species), and new gyrB mutations were described (S463A, S464F). qnrA had an additive effect of a 10-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) whatever the number of topoisomerase mutations, and qnrS was additive to qnrA with a further 2- to 10-fold increase in the MIC. Comparison of MICs with susceptibility breakpoints showed that strains combining qnrA and topoisomerase mutations were resistant to fluoroquinolones, but the three strains lacking a topoisomerase mutation were susceptible using ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin but not using nalidixic acid or moxifloxacin testing.
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Over 15 years, H. pylori resistance rates to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin had increased. There was increased resistance to multiple antibiotics.
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Patients attending scheduled visits at Health Sciences North (Sudbury, Ontario) provided gastric biopsy samples on a volunteer basis. In total, 20 H pylori isolates were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (on amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and clarithromycin) was conducted using disk diffusion and E-test methods. Subsequently, genomic DNA from these isolates was sequenced to detect mutations associated with antimicrobial resistance.
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In recent years, infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae has been a serious worldwide health concern. Antimicrobial-resistant S pneumoniae is increasing in incidence worldwide, posing a potentially serious threat. Resistance to beta-lactams, macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole represents a major problem in the treatment of pneumococcal infections
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Lactobacilli recovered from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, respiratory tract, and gut of 20 hospitalized immunocompromised septic patients were analyzed. Biochemical carbohydrate fermentation and total soluble cell protein profiles were used to identify the species. Hydrogen peroxide production was measured. Susceptibility to 19 antibiotics was tested by a diffusion method, and the MICs of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, imipenem, erythromycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin were determined. A small number of species produced H2O2, and antibiotic susceptibilities were species related. Eighteen (90%) of the isolates were L. rhamnosus, one was L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, and one was L. crispatus. L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei isolates, and the type strains were neither H2O2 producers nor vancomycin susceptible (MICs, >/=256 microgram/ml). L. crispatus, as well as most of the type strains of lactobacilli which belong to the L. acidophilus group, was an H2O2 producer and vancomycin susceptible (MICs, <4 microgram/ml).
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Concentration–response analysis based on the change of QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) from time-matched placebo was planned and performed in the combined data sets. At the geometric maximum mean concentration for the two doses in the Caucasian study, a predicted effect on QTcF comparable to the effects observed was found. For the Japanese study, the predicted effect was lower, but the difference was not statistically significant.
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The currently available fluoroquinolones have modest activity against anaerobes. Newer fluoroquinolones with increased in vitro activity against anaerobes are under development and include levofloxacin, clinafloxacin, sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin, and DU-6859a. Side effects of the quinolones have varied according to the specific compounds and include central nervous system stimulation, gastrointestinal disturbances, vasculitis, and photosensitization. Monitoring for toxicity is incompletely reliable in identifying all potential serious side effects such as the "temafloxacin syndrome." Other fluoroquinolones may produce this syndrome rarely or not at all. In this paper, I review limited published studies on the use of these agents for skin and skin-structure infections and gynecologic infections. Studies in progress are noted, and when available, in vitro data on the efficacy of these agents against bacterial isolates from specific sources are reviewed and evaluated in terms of potential clinical utility.
Fever, dyspnea, diarrhea, malaise, dizziness and dry cough were initially more common symptoms. Initially chest patterns included focal consolidation, interstitial infiltration or normal. Common laboratory findings were lymphopenia, and elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein. No mortality was found.
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The present study investigates the feasibility of using electro-Fenton (EF) process for the oxidative degradation of antibiotic levofloxacin (LEV). The EF experiments have been performed in an electrochemical cell using a carbon-felt cathode. The effect of applied current in the range 60-500 mA and catalyst concentration in the range 0.05-0.5 mM on the kinetics of oxidative degradation and mineralization efficiency have been investigated. Degradation of LEV by hydroxyl radicals was found to follow pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The absolute rate constant for oxidative degradation of LEV by hydroxyl radical has been determined by a competition kinetics method and found to be (2.48 ± 0.18) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). An optimum current value of 400 mA and a catalyst (Fe(2+)) concentration of 0.1 mM were observed to be optimal for an effective degradation of LEV under our operating conditions. Mineralization of aqueous solution of LEV was performed by the chemical oxygen demand analysis and an almost mineralization degree (>91%) was reached at the end of 6 h of electrolysis. A number of intermediate products have been identified using high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chrmatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Based on these identified reaction intermediates, a plausible reaction pathway has been suggested for the mineralization process. The formation and evolution of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] ions released to the medium during the process were also discussed.