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Data were pooled from two prospective, randomized studies. In the multinational study, patients received 7-14 days IV/PO moxifloxacin 400 mg QD or IV/ PO amoxicillin clavulanate 1200/625 mg TID +/- IV/PO clarithromycin 500 mg BID. In the North American study, patients received 7-14 days IV/PO moxifloxacin 400 mg QD, IV/ PO alatrofloxacin/trovafloxacin 200 mg QD, or IV/PO levofloxacin 500 mg QD. The primary endpoint was clinical success at the test-to-cure visit. Severe CAP was defined according to the 1993 ATS criteria.
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MICs were determined by agar and broth dilution methods for N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum, respectively.
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One hundred and sixty patients with infection documented by the C-urea breath test and histology were included in this prospective, open label study. Subjects were randomized in four groups: (1) levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.), amoxycillin (1 g b.d.) and rabeprazole (20 mg o.d.) for 7 days; (2) levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and rabeprazole (20 mg o.d.) for 5 days; (3) levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and rabeprazole (20 mg o.d.) for 7 days; and (4) levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and rabeprazole (20 mg o.d.) for 10 days. Six weeks after the end of therapy status was checked by using the C-urea breath test.
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Streptococcus agalactiae is known to be the major cause of neonatal infections and also causes complications during pregnancy.
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The 10-day levofloxacin- and amoxicillin-based quadruple therapy is well tolerated and achieves a high eradication rate as a third-line empirical treatment for H. pylori infection.
A rise of resistance in uropathogens to all agents used for the management of urinary tract infections has been observed in Moscow. However, because of the broad spectrum and favourable safety parameters, fluoroquinolones remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections. Among them levofloxacin is preferable. When the use of fluoroquinolones is contraindicated, the 1st-3rd generation cephalosporins are advisable. Nitrofurans are expedient in the treatment of acute and relapsing cystitis. By the antibacterial activity and bioavailability sodium furasidin is advantages among the nitrofurans.
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Antimicrobial use in long-term care facilities (LTCF) is an important public health issue, especially regarding its potential role in antimicrobial resistance. Up to two thirds of long-stay LTCF residents receive antimicrobial therapy each year. However, little is known specifically about antimicrobial use in short-stay LTCF residents receiving post-acute care.
This prospective observational study assessed the impact of discontinuing fluoroquinolone prophylaxis on the incidences of fever and bacteremia and on mortality among patients with neutropenia, after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies.
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This was a multicenter, open-label, pilot study enrolling consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients with H. pylori infection never previously treated for the infection. Patients were randomized to receive one of the following treatments: (a) concomitant therapy: omeprazole 20mg, amoxicillin 1g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and tinidazole 500 mg for 5 days; (b) sequential therapy: omeprazole 20mg and amoxicillin 1g for 5 days followed by omeprazole 20mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and tinidazole 500 mg for 5 days; (c) hybrid therapy: omeprazole 20mg, and amoxicillin 1g for 7 days followed by omeprazole 20mg, amoxicillin 1g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and tinidazole 500 mg, for 7 days. All drugs were administered twice daily. Bacterial eradication was checked 6 weeks after treatment by using a (13)C-urea breath test. A 10-day, second-line therapy with omeprazole 20mg, levofloxacin 250 mg, and amoxicillin 1g, all given twice daily, was offered to the eradication failure patients.
The mean aqueous level for topical levofloxacin was significantly higher than those achieved by topical ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (p value = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). The combination of topical and oral levofloxacin was significantly higher than topical levofloxacin alone (p = 0.05) and the ciprofloxacin combination (p = 0.003) but not significantly higher than the ofloxacin combination therapy.
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The objective of this study was to identify the oral pathogens found in odontogenic infections, to determine their susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), clindamycin (CLI), doxycycline (DOX), levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MXF), and penicillin (PEN), and to search for associations between specific pathogens and types of infection. Swabs from patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind phase II trial comparing MXF with CLI for the treatment of odontogenic abscesses or inflammatory infiltrates were cultured on media for aerobes and anaerobes. All bacterial isolates were identified at the species level. Overall, 205 isolates were cultured from 71 patients: 77 viridans group streptococci, 56 Prevotella spp., 19 Neisseria spp., 17 Streptococcus anginosus group isolates and hemolytic streptococci, 15 other anaerobes, and 21 other bacteria. Ninety-eight percent of pathogens were susceptible to MXF, 96% to AMC, 85% to LVX, 67% to PEN, 60% to CLI, and 50% to DOX. S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.04) in patients with abscesses (12/95) than in patients with infiltrates (5/110). In four patients with infiltrates who failed to respond to CLI therapy, three isolates of the Streptococcus mitis group and four Neisseria spp. resistant to CLI were found. In this study, S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were clearly associated with odontogenic abscesses. Our analysis suggests that viridans group streptococci and Neisseria spp. play a decisive role in the etiology of odontogenic infiltrates. The high in vitro activity of MXF against odontogenic bacteria corresponds well to its clinical results in the treatment of odontogenic abscesses and infiltrates.
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Forty-three (4.76%) implant reconstructions requiring explantation or drainage by interventional radiology met the inclusion criteria for this study. Five patients (11.6%) had round, smooth silicone implants, and 36 (88.4%) had textured tissue expanders. Twenty-six implants were explanted because of infection; 3, because of exposure from skin necrosis; and 11, because of the combination of flap necrosis and infection; and 1, secondarily because of cancer invasion into the skin. Reconstruction was salvaged in 21 breasts (51.2%): 12 (57.1%) by implant reconstruction, 5 (23.8%) by pedicled latissimus dorsi flaps, and 4 (19.1%) with a microvascular free flap. Thirty explants had microbiology data available. The most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis (10), followed by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (5), Serratia marcescens (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4), enterococcus (3), Escherichia coli (2), Enterobacter (2), group B streptococcus (1), and Morganella morganii (1). Forty percent of the organisms were resistant to cefazolin; however, 86% were sensitive to gentamicin, 80% were sensitive to Levaquin, and 63% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.