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Evaluating the efficacy and safety of adding the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardiito standard triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori.
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Erythromycin and its fourteen-member macrolide analogues have attracted attention for their efficacy in bronchial asthma. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of the macrolide antibiotics on endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in normal and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells, one of the sources of this potent bronchoconstrictor important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from the resected bronchi, and the effect of several antimicrobial and antiasthmatic drugs on the production and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of ET-1 was evaluated. Bronchoepithelial cells were also isolated from the mucosa of asthmatic patients under fibreoptic bronchoscopy, and the modulating effects of the drugs were studied. Erythromycin and clarithromycin uniquely suppressed mRNA levels as well as the release of ET- at therapeutic and non-cytotoxic concentrations (percentage inhibition of ET-1 protein release: 26.4+/-5.22% and 31.2+/-7.45%, respectively, at 10(-6) M). Furthermore, erythromycin and clarithromycin inhibited ET-1 expression in bronchoepithelial cells from patients with chronic, stable asthma. A glucocorticosteroid, dexamethasone, also inhibited ET-1 expression. In contrast, theophylline, salbutamol and FK506 had no effect on ET-1 production. Our findings demonstrated that these fourteen-member macrolide antibiotics had an inhibitory effect on endothelin-1 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. Moreover, this new mode of action may have some relevance to their clinical efficacy in bronchial asthma.
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To evaluate the status of H pylori eradication in Turkey by comparing the results of this study to other studies reported in the literature.
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Gastric mucous was obtained by gently scraping gastric mucosa using biopsy forceps in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy for PCR and rapid urease test (RUT). DNA was extracted from gastric mucous present within the gel of RUT. H. pylori status and CAM susceptibility were evaluated using H. pylori-specific PCR amplification for 23S rRNA using 4 different primer sets and 16S rRNA. H. pylori positive was defined as two of the three tests (serum antibody, histology, and RUT or PCR) were positive. CAM susceptibility was evaluated by point mutations (A 2142G and A 2143G of 23S rRNA).
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On intention-to-treat basis, H. pylori cure was achieved in 52 of 61 (85.2%) patients and 49 of 61 (80.3%) patients for the lafutidine- and lansoprazole-based therapies, respectively. The predicted 95% confidential intervals for the 4.9% of the difference were -1.8-11.6%. Using per protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 88.2% (52/59) and 84.5% (49/58), respectively. The predicted 95% confidential intervals for the 3.7% of the difference were -2.6-10.0%. Adverse events were observed in five and six patients, from the lafutidine and lansoprazole groups, respectively, but they were generally mild. Genetic predisposition of cytochrome p450 2C19 had no significant influence on treatment outcome in both regimens.
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A total of 75 patients diagnosed as H. pylori (+) by endoscopy were randomized to receive one of the seven H. pylori treatment protocols. These protocols were as follows: (LAC) = 'lansoprazole 30 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid' for 7 days and (OCM) = 'omeprazole 20 mg bid + clarithromycin 250 mg bid + metronidazole 500 mg bid'; (OAM) = 'omeprazole 40 mg qd + amoxicillin 500 mg tid + metronidazole 500 mg tid'; (MARB) = 'metronidazole 250 mg tid + amoxicillin 500 mg qid + ranitidine 300 mg hs + bismuth 300 mg qid'; (OAC) = omeprazole 20 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid'; (OCA) = omeprazole 40 mg bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid'; (OAB) = 'omeprazole 20 mg bid + amoxicillin 500 mg tid + bismuth 300 mg qid' each for 14 days. Only direct costs were included in the analysis. Effectiveness was measured in terms of "successful eradication". The cost-effectiveness ratios of the regimens were calculated using these effectiveness and cost data. The perspective of the study was assumed as the Government's perspective.
Bronchogenic cysts are lesions of congenital origin derived from the primitive foregut and are the most common primary cysts of the mediastinum. They are most frequently unilocular and contain clear fluid. Respiratory distress is the most common presentation in pediatric patients, manifested by recurring episodes of cough, stridor, wheezing and retractions.
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Ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were analysed in 50 patients with liver cirrhosis and hyperammonaemia. All patients were first treated with a low protein diet, kanamycin, lactulose, and branched chain enriched amino acid solution. Hyperammonaemia remained in 18 patients. These 18 patients were divided into three groups according to the status of H pylori infection; those with a diffuse distribution of H pylori in the stomach (group I), those with a regional distribution (group II), and those without H pylori (group III). These patients were given 30 mg iansoprazole, 1000 mg amoxicillin, and 400 mg clarithromycin or 500 mg metronidazole for two weeks to eradicate H pylori.
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We evaluated a disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium fortuitum complex organisms. Ninety-five strains were tested both by broth microdilution and disk diffusion. Global results showed good correlation for all antimicrobials except for clarithromycin and erythromycin. However, when the results were analyzed according to species, correlation was poor except for a few antimicrobials. The analysis of the resistant/susceptible results was good for all the antimicrobials tested except azithromycin and erythromycin. In conclusion, the disk diffusion technique could be useful as a screening technique for some antibiotics, but the results must be confirmed by using an accepted reference technique.
We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of rifampicin addition to clarithromycin in the treatment of Legionnaires' disease. An observational cohort study was conducted on patients assigned to a Legionnaires' disease outbreak. Of 32 patients with confirmed Legionella pneumonia, 11 received clarithromycin monotherapy and 21 received combination therapy of clarithromycin with rifampicin. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics and all patients were cured. Patients who received rifampicin had a 50% longer length of stay (P=0.035) and a trend towards higher bilirubin levels (P=0.053). Length of stay was directly correlated with the duration of rifampicin treatment (P=0.001). Combination therapy of clarithromycin and rifampicin had no additional benefit compared with clarithromycin monotherapy and could prolong the length of stay owing to possible negative drug interactions that could also affect other antibiotics.