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RIVUR is the largest prospective, randomized trial for children with primary VUR to date, comparing prophylaxis with placebo. The study sample comprises patients from 19 pediatric clinical sites in the United States, whose demographic and clinical characteristics may differ from those of children enrolled in previous trials from other countries.
To identify the factors related to good or non-adherence met among patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTX) in Bangui.
In the trials included in the review, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a beneficial effect in preventing death and illness episodes in adults with both early and advanced HIV disease. However, the wider applicability of these findings is unclear, in particular to areas with higher background bacterial resistance to cotrimoxazole. Further trials would be required in differing settings to widen applicability.
Neutropenia is the most frequent side effect of cotrimoxazole in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated the incidence of haematological disorders during the first 6 months of a zidovudine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in sub-Saharan African adults receiving cotrimoxazole.
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A new combination of trimethoprim with a sulphonamide, named Kelfiprim, differs from cotrimoxazole in that: a) the sulpha drug is sulphamethopyrazine instead of sulphamethoxazole; b) the trimethoprim to sulpha ratio is 5:4 instead of 1:5; c) the presence of a long-acting sulphonamide allows the administration of a daily dose of one capsule, following an initial loading dose of two capsules; d) a reduced amount of trimethoprim is given, as compared to cotrimoxazole, without any decrease of efficacy. Kelfiprim [KP] was compared to cotrimoxazole [Co] in a multicentre double blind trial. Sixty four patients suffering from acute and chronic infections of the upper and lower urinary tract entered the study. Urine sterilisation and clinical improvement without relapses showed no differences from the two treatment groups. Tolerance was excellent except in two patients, one treated with KP and the other treated with Co, who showed a transient exanthema.
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Nocardia species is a well-known pathogen in immunocompromised hosts, including renal transplant recipients. Primary pulmonary infection can disseminate to other organs and recommended first-line therapy is high-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). We report two cases of primary pulmonary Nocardia sp. in immunosuppressed patients who were treated with minocycline, a second-line drug. During treatment with minocycline, both patients developed central nervous system (CNS) lesions of Nocardia sp. and were then treated with TMP/SMX with resolution of disease. The literature on Nocardia and treatment with minocycline is reviewed. Treatment of pulmonary Nocardia sp. with 200 mg minocycline daily is not adequate to prevent disseminated CNS disease.
The medical records of 7 patients with clear corneal wound infections after phacoemulsification were reviewed retrospectively. Data that were reviewed included patient age, sex, onset of symptoms and signs after surgery, possible risk factors for infection, concomitant ocular disease, use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics and steroids, culture and antibiotic sensitivity results, treatment regimen, and outcome.
A non-significantly higher failure rate was observed in patients on C-P due to lack of efficacy (30.4 versus 20.6%, p = 0.545). The difference was more pronounced in severe PCP (60 versus 37.5%, p = 0.611) and a significantly lower efficacy of C-P was seen when used as salvage therapy. The two patients who had received C-P after not responding to TMP/SMX failed this regimen, but all seven patients who had failed initial treatment with C-P and had been switched to TMP/SMX were cured (p = 0.028). No treatment-limiting adverse reactions were reported for patients on C-P while six patients (17.6%) on TMP/SMX developed possibly related treatment-limiting toxicity (p = 0.071). However, in only two patients adverse events were definitely related to TMP/SMX (5.9%).
A diagnosis of melioidotic septic arthritis should be considered when septic arthritis is seen in an individual who is indigenous to or has recently visited Southeast Asia. The infection is more likely to be melioidotic septic arthritis if it involves an upper-extremity joint and if the patient has diabetes mellitus.
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and generally benign conditions among healthy, sexually active young women without long-term medical sequelae. In contrast, UTIs are more complicated among those individuals at either end of the age spectrum: infants/young children and geriatrics. UTI in children younger than 2 years has been associated with significant morbidity and long-term medical consequences, necessitating an extensive and somewhat invasive imaging evaluation to identify possible underlying functional or anatomic abnormalities. Pediatric UTI should be considered complicated until proved otherwise, and treatment should reflect the severity of signs and symptoms. Management in the acutely ill child frequently involves parenteral broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, and less ill children can be treated with trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), beta-lactams, and cephalosporins.UTI among older patients (>65 years) may be complicated by comorbidities, the baseline presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and benign urinary symptoms that can complicate diagnosis. The etiology of UTI encompasses a broader spectrum of infecting organisms than is seen among younger patients and includes more gram-positive organisms. Symptomatic UTI is generally more difficult to treat than among younger populations. Management should be conservative, of longer treatment durations, and cover a broad spectrum of possible uropathogens. Oral or parenteral treatment with a fluoroquinolone for 7 days is the preferred empiric approach. TMP-SMX can also be considered a first-line agent in women only, but only if the pathogen is known to be TMP-SMX sensitive.