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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) remains an important cause of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease worldwide. Treatment of H. pylori infection is one of the effective ways to prevent gastric cancer. However, standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication is no longer effective in many countries, including Thailand. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding bismuth and probiotic to standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication.
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Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-13003975.
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All articles were considered for possible inclusion in the review. Pertinent information, as judged by the authors, was selected for discussion.
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Mycobacterium intracellulare (MIT) was diagnosed postmortem by culture and supporting histopathology in seven birds from a flock of little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) at the Henry Doorly Zoo (HDZ). These birds represented 20% of the deaths in the population over a 4 yr period. Clinical signs in affected birds included severe respiratory distress characterized by open-mouth breathing with chronic debilitation. On exam, plaques were noted in the larynx, trachea, and soft tissue of the caudal oropharynx. Index cases were identified on necropsy in two birds on loan to another institution in 2003. Following a case confirmed antemortem at the HDZ, a three-drug protocol of rifampin (15 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.), ethambutol (15 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.), and clarithromycin (10 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.) was started on this bird in 2004 and extended to the entire flock in 2005. Gastric wash, fecal samples, and throat plaques were obtained antemortem on five birds within the flock, selected because of the presence of oral plaques, and tested by culture followed by a polymerase chain reaction assay. MIT was detected in gastric washes from four birds and in throat plaques from all five. Three more birds died during treatment. After the seventh bird died, antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed in July 2007 indicated that the MIT was now resistant to most antibiotics tested, including rifampin and ethambutol. The treatment regimen was changed to minocycline (10 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (10 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.). Oral plaques were not seen on monthly rechecks of the flock through November 2008. The proposed mechanism of transmission is exposure to wild birds but the source has not been determined. These cases of avian mycobacteriosis caused by MIT are the first known cases reported in little blue penguins.
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In our study, both concomitant and sequential therapy, but not hybrid therapy, reached high eradication rates. The success rate of second-line levofloxacin-based triple therapy is decreasing.
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Haemorrhagic colitis by Klebsiella oxytoca has been described as an antibiotic-associated colitis, particularly with the use of ampicillin. Here we report a patient with haemorrhagic colitis caused by K oxytoca after the use of clarithromycin. A 67-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes presented with mucobloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Stool culture grew K oxytoca. Colonoscopy showed the appearance of haemorrhagic colitis. Further history taking revealed that she had received a course of oral clarithromycin for upper respiratory tract infection. She had recovered by conservative treatment. We should be careful about gastrointestinal symptoms in patients on clarithromycin, which can cause haemorrhagic colitis associated with K oxytoca.
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Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) is a relatively rare disorder manifested by persistent papules that are confluent in the center and reticulated at the periphery with a characteristic distribution. Recently, many cases of CRP treated with minocycline have been reported, and their effect seems to be derived from their antibiotic properties. We report 6 cases of CRP alleviated by various antibiotics. The patient described in case 1 is a 16-year-old girl whose disease was alleviated by oral minocycline, 100 mg daily for 8 weeks. Cases 2 and 3 describe an 18-year-old woman and a 17-year-old male adolescent whose disease was reduced by oral fusidic acid, 1000 mg daily for 4 weeks. Case 4 describes a 14-year-old girl who received oral clarithromycin, 500 mg daily for 5 weeks. Case 5 describes a 22-year-old woman whose disease was reduced by oral erythromycin, 1000 mg daily for 6 weeks. Case 5 reports a 24-year-old man who received oral azithromycin, 500 mg daily 3 times per week for 3 weeks. Complete clearing after treatment with antibiotics raises the possibility that CRP is triggered by a bacterial infection and that antibiotics are the treatment of choice for CRP.
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Recurrent abdominal pain was relieved in all of patients. Fifty-five patients (91.7%) showed 13C-UBT negative in Group A and 42 (93.3%) presented negative in Group B. There was no significant difference in the eradication rate of H. pylori.
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To investigate the ocular toxicity and clearance of intravitreal clarithromycin lactobionate (Klaricid) and to determine the highest nontoxic dose.
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The etiology of chronic urticaria is largely unknown. The role of Helicobacter pylori infection, which is the most important cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer, is not clear in the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of H. pylori on chronic urticaria. Thirty-eight patients who had chronic urticaria of unknown origin and dyspepsia were included in the study. In all patients, standard laboratory tests for detection of urticaria etiology were performed. Mean urticaria symptom scores of patients were carried out. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence of H. pylori was investigated using urease testing and histopathology. Duodenal fluid aspirated during upper endoscopy was examined for the presence of Giardia lamblia. H. pylori infection was detected in 29 patients. After successful eradication of H. pylori infection, the mean symptom score of patients did not change significantly (2.6 +/- 0.6 vs., 2.4 +/- 0.8). Only one patient had a total disappearance of urticaria symptoms. Out of 38 patients, only one had G. lamblia infection. The results of our study suggest that there is no association between H. pylori infection and chronic urticaria.
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The effects of nocturnal gastric acid breakthrough (NAB) on Helicobacter pylori eradication are still unknown in peptic ulcer patients. The purposes of this study were to compare the effect of lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day (bid) to lansoprazole 60 mg once a day (qd) on the prevalence of NAB, and to determine whether NAB affects the eradication of H. pylori in peptic ulcer patients.